We describe a genetic map with a total of 381 bins of 616 genotyping by sequencing (GBS)-based SNP markers in a F6-F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 393 individuals derived from crossing S. bicolor BTx623 to S. bicolor IS3620C, a guinea line substantially diverged from BTx623. Five segregation distorted regions were found with four showing enrichment for S. bicolor alleles, suggesting possible selection during formation of this RIL population. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) study with this number of individuals, tripled relative to prior studies of this cross, provided resources, validated previous findings, and demonstrated improved power to detect plant height and flowering time related QTLs relative to other published studies. An unexpected low correlation between flowering time and plant height permitted us to separate QTLs for each trait and provide evidence against pleiotropy. Ten non-random syntenic regions conferring QTLs for the same trait suggest that those QTLs may represent alleles at genes functioning in the same manner since the 96 million year ago genome duplication that created these syntenic relationships, while syntenic regions conferring QTLs for different trait may suggest sub-functionalization after duplication. Collectively, this study provides resources for marker-assisted breeding, as well as a framework for fine mapping and subsequent cloning of major genes for important traits such as plant height and flowering time in sorghum.