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Highly Multiplexedin Situprotein Imaging With Signal Amplification By Immuno-SABER

Sinem K. Saka, Yu Wang, Jocelyn Y. Kishi, Allen Zhu, Yitian Zeng, Wenxin Xie, Koray Kirli, Clarence Yapp, Marcelo Cicconet, Brian J. Beliveau, Sylvain W. Lapan, Siyuan Yin, Millicent Lin, Edward S. Boyden, Pascal S. Kaeser, German Pihan, George M. Church, Peng Yin

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AbstractProbing the molecular organization of tissues requiresin situanalysis by microscopy. However current limitations in multiplexing, sensitivity, and throughput collectively constitute a major barrier for comprehensive single-cell profiling of proteins. Here, we report Immunostaining with Signal Amplification By Exchange Reaction (Immuno-SABER), a rapid, highly multiplexed signal amplification method that simultaneously tackles these key challenges. Immuno-SABER utilizes DNA-barcoded antibodies and provides a method for highly multiplexed signal amplification via modular orthogonal DNA concatemers generated by Primer Exchange Reaction. This approach offers the capability to preprogram and control the amplification level independently for multiple targets withoutin situenzymatic reactions, and the intrinsic scalability to rapidly amplify and image a large number of protein targets. We validated our approach in diverse sample types including cultured cells, cryosections, FFPE sections, and whole mount tissues. We demonstrated independently tunable 5-180-fold amplification for multiple targets, covering the full signal range conventionally achieved by secondary antibodies to tyramide signal amplification, as well as simultaneous signal amplification for 10 different proteins using standard equipment and workflow. We further combined Immuno-SABER with Expansion Microscopy to enable rapid and highly multiplexed super-resolution tissue imaging. Overall, Immuno-SABER presents an effective and accessible platform for rapid, multiplexed imaging of proteins across scales with high sensitivity.