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Physical Problems Of Small Structures In Electronics

R. Keyes
Published 1972 · Engineering

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A steady improvement in electronic computers through nearly two decades has been made possible by continued progress in miniaturization. An obvious question is, What will eventually limit the reduction in size of electronic components? An attempt is made to formulate a quantitative view of some of the phenomena that may limit the extension of present technologies to ever smaller dimensions. Specifically treated are the problems of removing heat from small structures, of the effect of the high resistance of small conductors, and of electromigration. It is concluded that of these the resistive and electromigration effects represent the most significant limits on size, and that they will prevent the dimensions of conductors from being reduced below a few hundred angstrom units.
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