Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

CEO Regulatory Foci, Environmental Dynamism, And Small Firm Performance

J. C. Wallace, L. Little, A. Hill, J. Ridge
Published 2010 · Business, Economics

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This research proposes and tests that regulatory foci of small business chief executive officers (promotion focus and prevention focus) relate to firm performance differentially when levels of environmental uncertainty vary. Results suggest that a promotion focus is positively related to firm performance, whereas a prevention focus is negatively related to firm performance. Further, these relationships are moderated by the degree of environmental dynamism such that in more dynamic environments, the relationship between promotion focus and firm performance is strengthened, whereas the relationship between prevention focus and firm performance is negatively affected. The reverse was found for less dynamic environments. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future research avenues are offered.
This paper references
Overall nonfinancial performance
10.1037/0003-066X.55.11.1217
Making a good decision: value from fit.
E. Higgins (2000)
How Mind-Set Clashes Get Merger Partners Off to a Bad Start
M L Marks (1998)
10.1016/S0742-3322(00)17019-6
Social structure and organizations
A. Stinchcombe (2000)
10.1016/0749-5978(91)90031-N
Power balance and the rationality of outcomes in matching markets.
Harris Sondak (1991)
10.1177/014920639902500403
The Role of Social Support in the Stressor-Strain Relationship: An Examination of Work-Family Conflict
D. Carlson (1999)
10.1177/031289629702200205
Strategic Leadership: Top Executives and Their Effects on Organizations
L. Donaldson (1997)
10.1177/014920638401000108
Designing New Business Startups: Entrepreneurial, Organizational, and Ecological Considerations
A. H. van de Ven (1984)
Looking for a Strategy to Teach Strategy,
L. E. Greiner (2003)
“ Social Structure and Organizations , ” in Handbook of Organizations
A. L. Stinchcombe (1965)
10.2189/asqu.52.3.351
It's All about Me: Narcissistic Chief Executive Officers and Their Effects on Company Strategy and Performance
Arijit Chatterjee (2007)
10.2307/2090830
Handbook of organizations
J. G. March (1966)
10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7
Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors
P. M. Podsakoff (1990)
10.2307/2393314
Top-management-team tenure and organizational outcomes: The moderating role of managerial discretion.
S. Finkelstein (1990)
10.1177/014662168500900101
Hierarchically Nested Covariance Structure Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data
K. Widaman (1985)
Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Objective Productivity as Determinants of Managerial Evaluations of Salespersons
S. B. MacKenzie (1991)
10.5465/255561
Research Notes: Industry Differences in Environmental Uncertainty and Organizational Characteristics Related to Uncertainty
Larence G. Hrebiniak (1980)
10.1057/JORS.1994.16
Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions
Larry E. Toothaker (1994)
Managerial Discretion: A Bridge Between Polar Views of Organizations
D. C. Hambrick (1987)
Regulatory Fit: Its Nature and Consequences
E T Higgins (2007)
10.1002/SMJ.4250131004
Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal
Pamela S. Barr (1992)
10.1287/ORSC.8.1.1
Perspective---The Black Box of Organizational Demography
B. Lawrence (1997)
10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00014-4
Organizational and contextual influences on the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leadership
B. Shamir (1999)
10.2307/2392963
Psychological and Traditional Determinants of Structure.
Danny Miller (1986)
10.1177/0013164497057006009
Development and Validation of a Work Domain Goal Orientation Instrument
D. Vandewalle (1997)
10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.462
Lack of method variance in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Reality or artifact?
L. Williams (1989)
10.1109/JPROC.1997.628729
The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action
R. Dorf (1997)
10.5465/APBPP.1999.27594645
LEARNING ACROSS THE LIFE CYCLE: EXPERIMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE AMONG THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIO HEADS.
D. Miller (1999)
10.2307/2393080
Dimensions of Organizational Task Environments.
G. Dess (1984)
10.1177/0170840600213007
Research Note: CEO Locus of Control and Small Firm Performance
C. Boone (2000)
10.1111/J.1467-6486.1996.TB00814.X
Ceo Locus of Control and Small Firm Performance: an Integrative Framework and Empirical Test*
C. Boone (1996)
10.1177/014920630002600408
Making More by Doing Less: An Analysis of Outsourcing and its Effects on Firm Performance
K. Gilley (2000)
10.1177/0149206304271760
Ownership and the Internationalization of Small Firms
G. George (2005)
10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.001
Upper Echelons Research Revisited: Antecedents, Elements, and Consequences of Top Management Team Composition
M. Carpenter (2004)
10.2307/255932
Strategic Decision Processes: Comprehensiveness and Performance in an Industry with an Unstable Environment
James W. Fredrickson (1984)
10.1590/S1415-65552003000100013
Organization change: theory and practice
Ilan Avrichir (2003)
10.1177/014920639502100506
Rationality in Strategic Decision Processes, Environmental Dynamism and Firm Performance
R. Priem (1995)
10.2307/3152222
Organizational citizenship behaviors and sales unit effectiveness
Philip M. Posdakoff (1994)
Lack of Method
L. J. Williams (1989)
How Regulatory Fit Creates Value
D. de Cremer (2007)
10.1111/J.1744-6570.2001.TB00083.X
SOCIALIZATION TACTICS AND PERSON‐ORGANIZATION FIT
D. Cable (2001)
The Black Box of Organizational Demography
B. Lawrence (1997)
Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market--And How to Successfully Transform Them
R. Foster (2001)
Upper Echelons Theory: Origins, Twists and Turns, and Lessons Learned,” in Great Minds in Management
D. Hambrick (2005)
10.1002/SMJ.524
How quickly do CEOs become obsolete? Industry dynamism, CEO tenure, and company performance
A. Henderson (2006)
10.1002/SMJ.4250050306
Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: The case of the privately-held firm and conglomerate business unit
G. Dess (1984)
10.2307/2095567
Structural Inertia and Organizational Change
M. Hannan (1984)
The Effect of Job Dissatisfaction on the Decision to Start a Business,
R. Brockhaus (1980)
10.1002/SEJ.12
Behavioral and cognitive factors in entrepreneurship: entrepreneurs as the active element in new venture creation
R. Baron (2007)
10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.
P. M. Podsakoff (2003)
10.1002/1099-1379(200011)21:7<747::AID-JOB46>3.0.CO;2-J
Charismatic leadership and follower effects
J. Conger (2000)
10.1109/TEM.2002.806719
The impact of environmental and organizational factors on discontinuous innovation within high-technology industries
Dawn R. DeTienne (2002)
10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00161.x
The Central Question in Entrepreneurial Cognition Research 2007
R. K. Mitchell (2007)
10.2307/2094928
The Liability of Newness: Age Dependence in Organizational Death Rates
J. A. Freeman (1983)
10.5465/AMR.1984.4277628
Upper Echelons: The Organization as a Reflection of Its Top Managers
D. Hambrick (1984)
10.5465/256434
Making Fast Strategic Decisions In High-Velocity Environments
K. Eisenhardt (1989)
10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1135
Promotion and prevention choices between stability and change.
N. Liberman (1999)
10.1016/S0749-5978(02)00509-5
Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade-off or separate strategic concerns?
J. Foerster (2003)
10.1016/B978-0-12-598226-9.50016-1
Chapter 10 – Mail and Other Self-Administered Questionnaires1
D. Dillman (1983)
10.1002/JOB.4030160204
Individualism‐collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior
R. Moorman (1995)
10.1111/J.1744-6570.2006.00046.X
A multilevel integration of personality, climate, self-regulation, and performance.
C. Wallace (2006)
10.5860/choice.46-5122
Strategic Leadership: Theory and Research on Executives, Top Management Teams, and Boards
Sydney Finkelstein (2008)
10.1287/MNSC.32.11.1389
Chief executive personality and corporate strategy and structure in small firms
Danny Miller (1986)
10.5465/AMR.2007.24345254
Upper Echelons Theory: An Update
D. C. Hambrick (2007)
10.1037/0022-3514.66.2.276
Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance: distinct self-regulatory systems.
E. Higgins (1994)
10.4324/9780203809549
People make the place.
L. Curtin (1993)
Why CEOs fail.
R. Charan (1999)
10.2307/255988
Top Executive Locus of Control and Its Relationship to Strategy-Making, Structure, and Environment
Danny Miller (1982)
10.1177/002224379703400108
The Impact of Organizational Memory on New Product Performance and Creativity
C. Moorman (1997)
10.1002/SMJ.4250080204
The impact of grand strategy and planning formality on financial performance
J. A. Pearce (1987)
10.1177/0149206308330560
Measuring Organizational Performance: Towards Methodological Best Practice
P. Richard (2009)
The Importance of Environmental and Organizational Factors on Discontinuous Innovation within High Technology Industries
D R Detienne (2002)
10.2307/1252058
The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of salesperson performance
S. MacKenzie (1993)
10.1177/0092070399274001
Do citizenship behaviors matter more for managers than for salespeople?
S. MacKenzie (1999)
10.1177/014920639702300306
The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?
R. House (1997)
Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology.
R. Kanfer (1990)
Joining Forces
R. Briggs (2005)
10.1177/014920639001600102
Industry Effects and Strategic Management Research
G. Dess (1990)
10.5465/AMR.1991.4279621
The seasons of a CEO's tenure.
D. C. Hambrick (1991)
How Mind - Set Clashes Get Merger Partners Off to a Bad Start
C. Droge
Industry Differences in Environmental Uncertainty and Organizational Characteristics Related to UncerJOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
L. G. Hrebiniak (1980)
10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.1002
Embedding leader characteristics: an examination of homogeneity of personality and values in organizations.
Tomas R. Giberson (2005)
10.2307/2578982
Handbook of Survey Research.
Stanley Presser (1985)
10.2307/2391664
Elite Values Versus Organizational Structure in Predicting Innovation
J. Hage (1973)
The People Make
B. Schneider (1987)
10.1016/S0149-2063(00)00067-2
Work–family conflict in the organization: do life role values make a difference?
D. Carlson (2000)
10.1002/SEJ.42
When does entrepreneurial self-efficacy enhance versus reduce firm performance?
Keith M. Hmieleski (2008)
10.5465/AMLE.2003.11902092
Searching for a Strategy to Teach Strategy
L. Greiner (2003)
10.2307/2392582
Measuring Organizational Effectiveness in Institutions of Higher Education.
K. Cameron (1978)
10.1037/0003-066x.52.12.1280
Beyond pleasure and pain.
E. Higgins (1997)
10.1177/014920638701300109
Measurement of Business Economic Performance: An Examination of Method Convergence
N. Venkatraman (1987)
10.5465/AMR.2005.17293355
Executive Job Demands: New Insights for Explaining Strategic Decisions and Leader Behaviors
D. C. Hambrick (2005)
Organization and environment
P. Lawrence (1967)
Regulatory Fit: Its Nature and Consequences,” in Perspectives on Organizational Fit
E. T. Higgins (2007)
10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00304-1
Human resource outsourcing and organizational performance in manufacturing firms
K. Gilley (2004)
10.5465/255702
A Strategic Model of the U.S. Brewing Industry: 1952-1971
Kenneth J. Hatten (1978)
10.5465/AMR.2007.24351846
Motivation to Lead, Motivation to Follow: The Role of the Self-Regulatory Focus in Leadership Processes
R. Kark (2007)
10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00007-7
Regulatory focus theory and the entrepreneurial process
J. Brockner (2004)
10.1207/S15327663JCP1203_01
How Self-Regulation Creates Distinct Values: The Case of Promotion and Prevention Decision Making
E. Higgins (2002)
Employee morale/job satisfaction 12. ___ Customer relations 13
10.1002/SMJ.393
Corporate Elites and Corporate Strategy: How Demographic Preferences and Structural Position Shape the Scope of the Firm
M. Jensen (2004)
A Behavior Theory of the Firm
R M Cyert (1963)
10.1016/0749-5978(91)90037-T
Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial evaluations of salespersons' performance
S. MacKenzie (1991)
10.1006/OBHD.2001.2972
Regulatory Focus Theory: Implications for the Study of Emotions at Work
J. Brockner (2001)
10.1002/SMJ.4250030102
Innovation in Conservative and Entrepreneurial Firms: Two Models of Strategic Momentum
Danny Miller (1982)
10.1002/SMJ.4250070505
Measuring strategic performance
B. Chakravarthy (1986)
10.1037/0022-3514.83.4.854
Motivation by positive or negative role models: regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us.
P. Lockwood (2002)
10.2307/3069341
Does Leadership Matter? CEO Leadership Attributes and Profitability under Conditions of Perceived Environmental Uncertainty.
D. Waldman (2001)
10.2307/2393700
Who Shall Govern? CEO/Board Power, Demographic Similarity, and New Director Selection
James D. Westphal (1995)
10.1177/014920638601200408
Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects
P. M. Podsakoff (1986)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/J.JFBS.2011.07.004
Ideal types of family business management: Horizontal fit between family and business decisions and the relationship with family business performance
R. Basco (2011)
10.3390/SU10051665
Technological Configuration Capability, Strategic Flexibility, and Organizational Performance in Chinese High-Tech Organizations
J. Li (2018)
10.5465/AMJ.2013.0377
Motivated to acquire? The impact of ceo regulatory focus on firm acquisitions
Daniel Gamache (2014)
10.1016/J.LEAQUA.2016.10.011
Individual differences as antecedents of leader behavior: towards an understanding of multi-level outcomes
Aybars Tunçdoğan (2017)
Decision Making and Behavioral Strategy: The role of regulatory focus in corporate innovation processes
Aybars Tunçdoğan (2014)
10.1108/JBIM-06-2016-0126
CEOs’ regulatory foci and firm-level product innovativeness in competitive environments
Samuel Adomako (2017)
10.1037/a0027723
Regulatory focus and work-related outcomes: a review and meta-analysis.
Klodiana Lanaj (2012)
Regulations: friend or foe? Regulation and growth-oriented small businesses
Keith A. Jackson (2015)
Understanding the effects of regulatory focus on proactive behavior
Brian Waterwall (2017)
10.1016/J.JFBS.2012.12.003
The family's effect on family firm performance: A model testing the demographic and essence approaches
R. Basco (2013)
10.2224/SBP.2013.41.1.71
What makes small- and medium-sized enterprises promote organizational creativity: The contingency perspective
Soo-young Shin (2013)
After the announcement : how CEO motivational attributes shape their propensity to be influenced by stakeholder reactions to announcements of strategic actions
Daniel Gamache (2015)
10.1177/0963721417748397
The Impact of Top Leaders’ Personalities: The Processes Through Which Organizations Become Reflections of Their Leaders
S. Oreg (2018)
10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.12.004
CEO regulatory focus as the microfoundation of organizational ambidexterity: A configurational approach
S. Huang (2021)
10.1108/jsbed-03-2020-0065
Regulatory focus, persistence and new venture performance
Samuel Adomako (2020)
10.1177/0146167218775070
Regulatory Focus and Conspiratorial Perceptions: The Importance of Personal Control
Jennifer A. Whitson (2019)
10.1111/jsbm.12054
The Impact of Organizational Orientations on Medium and Small Firm Performance: A Resource‐Based Perspective
Subhash C. Lonial (2015)
10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2012.07.003
Who benefits most? The effects of managerial assistance on high- versus low-performing small businesses
J. Seo (2014)
10.1142/S136391961550005X
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM INNOVATION ORIENTATION AND FIRM GROWTH: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF FIRM INNOVATIVENESS
Nils D. Kraiczy (2015)
10.1142/S1084946717500200
Entrepreneurial Passion And Organizational Innovation: The Moderating Role Of The Regulatory Focus Of Entrepreneurs
Cuiping Ma (2017)
10.1108/md-02-2020-0233
From CEO passion to exploratory and exploitative innovation: the moderating roles of market and technological turbulence
Wenjun Cai (2020)
Navigating the Seas of Change: How Small Businesses Respond to Environmental Dynamism
Dávid Gregor (2019)
10.1108/JKM-03-2016-0100
To gain or not to lose? The effect of monetary reward on motivation and knowledge contribution
H. Liu (2017)
10.2139/ssrn.2891263
How CEO and CFO Regulatory Focus Interact to Shape the Firm’s Corporate Strategy
G. Chen (2018)
CEOs' Personality and Abilities matter: Their Influence on SME Behavior and Performance
D. Burger (2017)
10.4018/978-1-7998-2269-1.ch010
Socioemotional Wealth and Its Effect on Family Firm Performance
Juili Milind Ballal (2020)
10.1016/J.OBHDP.2014.10.008
When vigilance prevails: The effect of regulatory focus and accountability on integrative negotiation outcomes
Ann C. Peng (2015)
10.1177/0149206315575552
A Review of Multilevel Regulatory Focus in Organizations
P. D. Johnson (2015)
10.2139/ssrn.1872558
When Vigilance Prevails: Regulatory Focus in Negotiations with External Goals
Ann C. Peng (2011)
10.1007/S11573-014-0755-Z
CEO innovation orientation and R&D intensity in small and medium-sized firms: the moderating role of firm growth
Nils D. Kraiczy (2015)
Dark Triad Unleashed : Examining Trait-Activating Effects on Counterproductive Work Behavior
Danielle Tarantino (2019)
10.4018/978-1-7998-1655-3.ch005
Which Competitive Strategy Fits Better to Different Family-Business Profiles?: A Configurational Approach
Tomás F. González-Cruz (2020)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar