Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Cords, Channels, Corridors And Conduits: Critical Architectural Elements Facilitating Cell Interactions In The Lymph Node Cortex

J. Gretz, A. Anderson, S. Shaw
Published 1997 · Biology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
: The lymph node cortex is a critical site for encounter between recirculating T cells and their specific antigens. Due to its extreme plasticity, little is understood of the underlying functional unit of the lymph node cortex, the paracortical cord. The idealized paracortical cord (approximately 100 nm by 1000 μm) stretches from a medullary cord to the base of a B‐cell follicle. In cross‐section, a cord can be visualized as a set of nested cylinders consisting of spaces bounded by cells. The spaces are: i) the lumen of the high endothelial venule (HEV), ii) perivenular channels ‐ narrow potential spaces (0.1 μm) tightly encircling the HEV, iii) corridors – broad spaces (10–15 μm) constituting the majority of the parenchyma, and iv) the cortical sinus. In addition to these spaces for cell traffic, the conduit (fifth space) is a special delivery system for the transit of soluble factors to the HEV and emigrating lymphocytes. The cellular barriers between these spaces are high endothelium, tibroblastic reticular cells, or sinus‐lining cells. This review describes the spaces of the paracortical cord and their cellular boundaries, outlines the movement of cells and fluids through these spaces, and discusses how this anatomy affects the efficiency of surveillance by T cells.
This paper references
Tbe effects of antigen on tbe migration of recirculating lympbocytes tbrougb single lympb nodes
RN Cahill
FuBctional anatomy of lymph nodes 1 . Paracordcal cords
RH Kelly (1975)
Tridimensiona ! sttidy ofthe deep cortex of the rat lymph node IV . Differential labelling of the deep cortex units with 3 H - uridine
G Sainte-Marie
Structures of the 46 . lymph node and their possible function during tbe immune response
G Sainte-Marie (1967)
Multiple effects of immunological adjuvants on lymphatic mi croenviron m e n ts
AO Anderson (1985)
10.1679/AOHC.48.1
Scanning electron microscope studies of the rat mesenteric lymph node with special reference to high-endothelial venules and hitherto unknown lymphatic labyrinth.
Y. He (1985)
10.1002/AR.1092410115
Scanning electron microscopic studies of reticular framework in the rat mesenteric lymph node
T. Ushiki (1995)
10.1002/AR.1091990206
Tridimensional study of the deep cortex of the rat lymph node. III. Morphology of the deep cortex units
Claude J. P. Bélisle (1981)
10.1146/ANNUREV.IY.09.040191.001415
The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity.
R. Steinman (1991)
10.1016/0167-5699(95)80023-9
High endothelial venules (HEVs): specialized endothelium for lymphocyte migration.
J. Girard (1995)
10.1084/JEM.182.2.389
Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class II compartment: downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products
F. Sallusto (1995)
10.1002/AR.1092120412
Structure of the sinus‐lining cells in the popliteal lymph node of the rabbit
C. Compton (1985)
Lymphocyte trafficking
S. Anderson AO. Shaw (1995)
Vitronecdn ( serum spreading factor ) : its localization in normal and flbrotic tissue
JT Reilly (1990)
10.1002/AR.1091990207
Tridimensional study of the deep cortex of the rat lymph node. IV. Differential labelling of the deep cortex units with 3H‐uridine
G. Saintemarie (1981)
10.1098/rspb.1964.0002
The migration of lymphocytes through the endothelium of venules in lymph nodes: an electron microscope study
V. Marchesi (1964)
Internal structure of 40 . the postcapillary high - endothebal venules of rodent lymph nodes and Peyer ' s patches and the tran . sendothelial lymphocyte passage
Cho Y. De Bruyn PPH (1975)
Locomotion oflymphocytes
WH Leviis (1931)
Anderson ND . Lymphocyte emigration from high endotbeliat venules in rat lymph nodes . 37
W vanEwijk (1976)
10.1002/AR.1090560307
The structure of the sinuses in the lymph nodes
C. K. Drinker (1933)
Atistyn JM. New insights inio the mobilization and phagocytic activity of dendritic cells
(1988)
10.1002/EJI.1830171203
Rapid decrease in lymphocyte adherence to high endothelial venules in lymph nodes deprived of afferent lymphatic vessels
H. Hendriks (1987)
10.1002/AJA.1001770406
Internal structure of the postcapillary high-endothelial venules of rodent lymph nodes and Peyer's patches and the transendothelial lymphocyte passage.
Y. Cho (1986)
A study on binding of suspended nodal lymphocytes to high endothelial venules in sections of frozen rat lymph nodes.
G. Saintemarie (1995)
Studies on tbe striicttire and permeability of tbe microva.sculatiire in normal rat lympb nodes
ND AndersonAO.Anderson (1975)
10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.14.1.155
Orchestrated information transfer underlying leukocyte endothelial interactions.
K. Ebnet (1996)
ElAM-1 is most elevated in acute inflammation, whereas VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 predominated in chronic inflammation
(1996)
10.1016/S0022-5320(74)80071-7
The ultrastructure of mouse lymph node venules and the passage of lymphocytes across their walls.
E. Wenk (1974)
Diffustnn of a lymph-carried antigen in tiie fiber network of the lymph node ofthe rat
G Sainte-Marie (1986)
Lymphocyte emigration from high endothelial venules in rat lymph nodes.
A. Anderson (1976)
10.1002/AJA.1001570304
The structure of the sinus wall of the lymph node relative to its endocytic properties and transmural cell passage.
A. Farr (1980)
10.1111/j.1600-065X.1989.tb00014.x
Heterogeneity of Lymphocyte Homing Physiology: Several Mechanisms Operate in the Control of Migration to Lymphoid and Non‐Lymphoid Organs In Vivo
R. Pabst (1989)
The " mosaic " structure ofthe sinuses in the hilar lymph node complex ofthe lungs in rabbits undergoing a pulmonary cell - mediated reaction : an electron microscopic study
K Tenner-Racz (1978)
Shaw S . Lymphocyte trafficking
RR Rich (1995)
10.1111/j.1365-3083.1980.tb00085.x
The Architecture of Rat Lymph Nodes
S. Fossum (1980)
10.1016/0167-5699(92)90039-A
Endothelial cell binding of NAP-1/IL-8: role in neutrophil emigration.
A. Rot (1992)
10.1111/J.1600-0609.1967.TB01644.X
Post-capillary venules as basic structural units in the development of lymphoglandular tissue.
N. Söderström (1967)
10.1084/JEM.136.4.697
BLOOD MICROCIRCULATION IN THE LYMPH NODE DURING THE PRIMARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
P. Herman (1972)
10.1159/000231371
Functional Anatomy of Lymph Nodes
R. H. Kelly (1975)
Smdies on lymphocytosis . 51 , n . The production of lymphocytosis by intravenous heparin in calves
CR Jansen (1975)
10.1002/jlb.60.6.692
Rabbit vascular endothelial adhesion molecules: ELAM‐1 is most elevated in acute inflammation, whereas VCAM‐1 and ICAM‐1 predominate in chronic inflammation
Y. Abe (1996)
The deep cortex ofthe lymph node : morphological variations and functional aspects
G Sainte-Marie (1990)
10.1002/AR.1091990107
Tridimensional study of the deep cortex of the rat lymph node. II: Relation of deep cortex units to afferent lymphatic vessels
C. Belisle (1981)
10.1126/SCIENCE.2648569
The neutrophil-activating protein (NAP-1) is also chemotactic for T lymphocytes.
C. Larsen (1989)
Leukocyte - endothelial
EC Butcher
10.1182/BLOOD.V20.4.443.443
Studies on lymphocytes. II. The production of lymphocytosis by intravenous heparin in calves.
C. R. Jansen (1962)
Peng FS , Diffustnn of a lymph - carried antigen in tiie fiber network of the lymph node ofthe rat
G Sainte-Marie (1986)
Localization of beta 1 integrins and their extracellular ligands in human lymphoid tissues.
T. K. van den Berg (1993)
Lymphocyte locomotion , lymphatic tissues and lymphocyte circulation in the rat
AO Anderson
10.1146/ANNUREV.PH.57.030195.004143
Traffic signals on endothelium for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration.
T. Springer (1995)
10.1016/0361-9230(84)90009-1
Autoradiographic localization of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites in the cat brain with [3H]PK 11195
J. Benavides (1984)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(199608)245:4<593::AID-AR1>3.0.CO;2-Q
High endothelial venules of the rat lymph node. A review and a question: Is their activity antigen specific?
G. Saintemarie (1996)
10.1084/JEM.147.4.1054
Distribution of a major connective tissue protein, fibronectin, in normal human tissues
S. Stenman (1978)
Siebenlist U . Shaw S . T - cell adhesion induced by proteoglycan - immobilized cytokine MIP - ip
Y Tanaka
THE MIGRATION OF LYMPHOCYTES ACROSS THE VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM IN LYMPHOID TISSUE
G. I. Schoefl (1972)
Specialized structure and metabolic activities of high endothelial venules in rat lymphatic tissues.
N. D. Anderson (1976)
10.1111/j.1365-2559.1985.tb02830.x
The organization of cell populations within lymph nodes: their origin, life history and functional relationships
S. Fossum (1985)
Altered lymphocyte traiBc in heparin - treated 50 . rats
ND Anderson (1996)
10.1136/jcp.41.12.1269
Vitronectin (serum spreading factor): its localisation in normal and fibrotic tissue.
J. Reilly (1988)
10.1679/AOHC.51.233
Direct contact between reticular fibers and migratory cells in the paracortex of mouse lymph nodes: a morphological and quantitative study.
M. Hayakawa (1988)
TVidimensioiial study ofthe deep cortex ofthe rat lympli node I . Topography ofthe deep cortex
C Beltsle (1981)
recognition : three ( or more ) steps to specificity and diversity . 34
TA Springer (1991)
Anderson ND . Studies on tbe striicttire and permeability of tbe micro - va . sculatiire in normal rat lympb nodes
DL Felten (1975)
Structures of the lymph node and their possible function during the immune response.
G. Saintemarie (1968)
Immunoelectron microscopic localization of laminin , type IV collagen , type III pN - coUagen in reticular fibers of human lymph nodes
T Karttunen
10.1016/0092-8674(90)90694-A
CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate
A. Aruffo (1990)
10.1084/JEM.183.4.1287
New insights into the mobilization and phagocytic activity of dendritic cells
J. Austyn (1996)
10.1093/JNCI/41.2.287
Morphology of postcapillary venules under different experimental conditions.
G. Krüger (1968)
De Bruyn PP The mode of lympho-39
A G Farr
10.1084/JEM.160.4.1054
In vitro alteration of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide changes the in vivo localization of mouse T cells
C. Ottaway (1984)
Ultrastructure of lymphoid organs. An electron microscopic atlas
1 Olah (1975)
10.1002/EJI.1830130811
Disappearance and reappearance of high endothelial venules and immigrating lymphocytes in lymph nodes deprived of afferent lymphatic vessels: a possible regulatory role of macrophages in lymphocyte migration
H. Hendriks (1983)
Localization of leucocytes in sites of delayed-type hypersensitivity and in lymph nodes: dependence on vasoactive amines.
P. Askenase (1982)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1964.tb52545.x
SOME ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS ON INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LEUKOCYTES, PLATELETS, AND ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN ACUTE INFLAMMATION *
V. Marchesi (1964)
10.1111/j.1365-3083.1980.tb00039.x
Kinetics of the Different Susceptibilities of the Four Human Immunoglobulin G Subclasses to Proteolysis by Human Lysosomal Elastase
A. Baici (1980)
10.1016/0092-8674(91)90279-8
Leukocyte-endothelial cell recognition: Three (or more) steps to specificity and diversity
E. Butcher (1991)
10.1002/AR.1091990106
Tridimensional study of the deep cortex of the rat lymph node. I: Topography of the deep cortex
C. Belisle (1981)
Silver Impregnation of Reticulum in Paraffin Sections.
G. Gömöri (1937)
Gershon RK. 30. Localization of leukocytes in sites of delayedtype hypersensitivity and in lymph nodes: dependence on vasoactive amines
P W Askenase (1982)
Kaldjian EP Anderson AO , Shaw S . Orchestrated information transfer underlying 33 . leukocyte endothelial interactions
K Ebnet (1996)
Transport of immune complexes from the subcapsular sinus to lymph node follicles on the surface of nonphagocytic cells, including cells with dendritic morphology.
A. Szakal (1983)
Sopbisticated strategies for information encounter in tbe lymph node : tbe reticular 43 . network as a conduit of soluble information and a bigbway for cell traffic
JE Gretz
Transport of immune complexes from ihe subcapsular sinus to lymph node follicles on the surface of nonphagocytic cells, including cells
JG HolmesKL.Tew (1995)
Blood Gesellschaft 1939;46:179-224
PG Herman (1939)
10.1007/978-3-642-75519-4_2
The deep cortex of the lymph node: morphological variations and functional aspects.
G. Saintemarie (1990)
10.1002/AJA.1001100303
The reticulum of lymph nodes in mice studied with the electron microscope.
S. Clark (1962)
The role of the lymphatic system in inflammatory responses.
J. Smith (1970)
10.1083/JCB.115.1.85
The influence of afferent lymphatic vessel interruption on vascular addressin expression
R. Mebius (1991)
CD 44 is the principal cell surface receptor for byaluronate
A Aruflb (1969)
10.1016/0008-8749(75)90207-5
Scanning electron microscopy of homing and recirculating lymphocyte populations.
W. van Ewijk (1975)
Localization of beu I integrins and their extracellular ligands in human lympboid tissues
TK VandenBerg (1989)
Die blutgefassversorgiing der Jymphatischen organe
A Dabelow (1939)
10.1084/JEM.136.3.568
The migration of lymphocytes across the vascular endothelium in lymphoid tissue. A reexamination.
Schoefl Gi (1972)
10.1002/AJA.1001430104
The mode of lymphocyte migration through postcapillary venule endothelium in lymph node.
A. Farr (1975)
Yeb P Sympatbetic innervation of lympb nodes in mice
DL Felten (1984)
Microvascular changes in lymph nodes draining skin allografts.
N. D. Anderson (1975)
10.1038/361079A0
T-cell adhesion induced by proteoglycan-immobilized cytokine MIP-lβ
Y. Tanaka (1993)
10.1084/JEM.143.4.870
The effects of antigen on the migration of recirculating lymphocytes through single lymph nodes
R. Cahill (1976)
Studies on the structure and permeability of the microvasculature in normal rat lymph nodes.
A. Anderson (1975)
Rabbit vascular endothelial adhe.sion molecules
Abe Y Sugisaki
TVidimensional study of the deep cortex of the rat lymph node III . Morphology of the deep conex units
C BeHsle (1981)
Blood micrcdrculation in the lymph node during the primary immune response
PG Herman
10.1177/37.3.2918219
Immunoelectron microscopic localization of laminin, type IV collagen, and type III pN-collagen in reticular fibers of human lymph nodes.
T. Karttunen (1989)
10.1111/J.1600-0609.1969.TB01825.X
Outflow paths of cells from the lymph node parenchyma to the efferent lymphatics--observations in thin section histology.
N. Söderström (1969)
10.1002/AJA.1001120304
Fine structure of the reticulum and sinuses of lymph nodes
R. Moe (1963)
The migration of 38 . lympbocytes through the endothelium of venules in lymph nodes : an electron microscope study
AG Farr (1964)
Sophisticated strategies for information encounter in the lymph node: the reticular network as a conduit of soluble information and a highway for cell traffic.
J. Gretz (1996)
Orchestrated information transfer underlying 33
K Ebnet
10.1016/0008-8749(74)90090-2
Influence of heparin and protamine on enlargement of the draining lymph node during induction of EAE.
I. Matous-Malbohan (1974)
10.1006/SMIM.1993.1031
T cell adhesion to endothelium: the FRC conduit system and other anatomic and molecular features which facilitate the adhesion cascade in lymph node.
A. Anderson (1993)
Role of lymphocyte activation products (LAP) in cell-mediated immunity. II. Effects of lymphocyte activation products on lymph node architecture and evidence for peripheral release of LAP following antigenic stimulation.
R. H. Kelly (1972)



This paper is referenced by
10.4049/jimmunol.174.12.7492
Cutting Edge: Egress of Newly Generated Plasma Cells from Peripheral Lymph Nodes Depends on β2 Integrin1
O. Pabst (2005)
10.1038/nature06887
Rapid leukocyte migration by integrin-independent flowing and squeezing
Tim Lämmermann (2008)
10.4049/jimmunol.1000522
Complement-Dependent Transport of Antigen into B Cell Follicles
Santiago F Gonzalez (2010)
10.1038/nri2414
Form follows function: lymphoid tissue microarchitecture in antimicrobial immune defence
T. Junt (2008)
A Comparative study on Prenatal and Postnatal changes in the histoarchitecture of Mesentric lymph node in Laboratory Animals
G. Ramesh (2015)
10.1586/ehm.13.4
Atypical lymphoid proliferations: the pathologist’s viewpoint
M. Hussein (2013)
10.3109/9780203025956-5
High Endothelial Venules
Jean-Marc Gauguet (2007)
10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2004.08.006
Intravital microscopy: visualizing immunity in context.
Cenk Sumen (2004)
10.1084/JEM.192.10.1425
Lymph-Borne Chemokines and Other Low Molecular Weight Molecules Reach High Endothelial Venules via Specialized Conduits While a Functional Barrier Limits Access to the Lymphocyte Microenvironments in Lymph Node Cortex
J. Gretz (2000)
10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00079-7
Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo.
M. Cahalan (2003)
10.1038/ni.1856
Capture of influenza by medullary dendritic cells via SIGN-R1 is essential for humoral immunity in draining lymph nodes
Santiago F Gonzalez (2010)
10.1002/1521-4141(200207)32:7<2046::AID-IMMU2046>3.0.CO;2-M
T cell priming by dendritic cells: thresholds for proliferation, differentiation and death and intraclonal functional diversification
Anja Langenkamp (2002)
10.1177/0300985812469636
Pathology of Experimental Aerosol Zaire Ebolavirus Infection in Rhesus Macaques
N. Twenhafel (2013)
10.1038/icb.2008.60
Simulating T‐cell motility in the lymph node paracortex with a packed lattice geometry
G. Bogle (2008)
10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03136.x
Insulin‐like growth factor I messenger RNA and protein are expressed in the human lymph node and distinctly confined to subtypes of macrophages, antigen‐presenting cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells
Dominique Oberlin (2009)
10.4049/jimmunol.181.6.3887
Fibroblast-Type Reticular Stromal Cells Regulate the Lymph Node Vasculature1
S. Chyou (2008)
10.1016/B978-0-12-370607-2.00001-6
Structure and Function of Hematopoietic Tissues
F. Naeim (2008)
10.1038/s41590-019-0505-z
Mechanosensing by Peyer’s patch stroma regulates lymphocyte migration and mucosal antibody responses
Jonathan E Chang (2019)
10.1679/AOHC.66.261
Fluid and cellular pathways of rat lymph nodes in relation to lymphatic labyrinths and Aquaporin-1 expression.
O. Ohtani (2003)
10.1016/S0952-7915(00)00218-1
The instructive role of dendritic cells on T cell responses: lineages, plasticity and kinetics.
A. Lanzavecchia (2001)
Contributes to Cross-Tolerance against The Kidney-Renal Lymph Node-System
Sabine Specht (2017)
This information is current as Cycle and Regulation of the T Lymphocyte Life Fibroblastic Reticular Cells : Organization
F. D. Brown (2015)
Large Particulate Antigens Initiating T-Dependent B Cell Responses to A Protease-Dependent Mechanism for Rooijen and
Drew M. Catron (2010)
10.1111/imr.12414
Dendritic cells in remodeling of lymph nodes during immune responses
S. Acton (2016)
10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.021
A Spatially-Organized Multicellular Innate Immune Response in Lymph Nodes Limits Systemic Pathogen Spread
W. Kastenmüller (2012)
10.1016/S0014-4835(03)00062-9
Structural and cellular architecture of conjunctival lymphoid follicles in the baboon (Papio anubis).
R. Astley (2003)
10.1016/S1471-4906(02)00004-2
Paracrine relationships between adipose and lymphoid tissues: implications for the mechanism of HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome.
C. Pond (2003)
10.4049/jimmunol.177.4.2340
Homeostatic Lymphoid Chemokines Synergize with Adhesion Ligands to Trigger T and B Lymphocyte Chemokinesis1
A. Stachowiak (2006)
Fibroblastic reticular cells and fibroblast-like cells determined by monoclonal antibodies B-F45 and B-D46 in humans.
P. Atilla (2004)
10.4049/jimmunol.181.9.6189
Organizer-Like Reticular Stromal Cell Layer Common to Adult Secondary Lymphoid Organs1
T. Katakai (2008)
10.1177/0883911516631354
Potential of mannan or dextrin nanogels as vaccine carrier/adjuvant systems
Catarina Gonçalves (2016)
Human Tumor Antigen MUC1 as an Inducer of Dendritic Cell Migration and Distorted Maturation
C. A. Carlos (2005)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar