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Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: A Major Review

S. Kumar
Published 2009 · Medicine

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Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, bilateral, at times asymmetrical, seasonally exacerbated, allergic inflammation of the ocular surface, involving tarsal and/or bulbar conjunctiva. Though the allergic nature of this entity has been accepted for a long time, the accumulation of a large amount of immunological data has proved that the pathogenesis of VKC is much more complex than a mere type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. In the past several years, many clinical and experimental studies about the cells and mediators involved in initiating and perpetuating the ocular allergic inflammation have shown that T helper type 2 cells and their cytokines, corneal fibroblasts and epithelium along with various growth factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC. Based on this information about the pathogenesis of VKC newer, more selective drugs like anti‐chemokine receptor antibodies and leukotriene receptor antagonists are under evaluation. Cyclosporine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of VKC but further randomized control trials are required to establish the minimum effective concentration.
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10.1155/2014/804870
Increased Incidence of Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmunity in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
S. Stagi (2014)
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: atopy and autoimmunity.
A. Zicari (2013)
10.1111/cea.12264
An essential role for dendritic cells in vernal keratoconjunctivitis: analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy
M. Liu (2014)
Ophthalmology in Persian medicine
S. M. Tabatabaei (2014)
10.7869/DJO.2012.76
Pterygium Masking Bifid Medial Rectus Insertion and Strabismic Amblyopia
M. Gupta (2013)
10.1159/000355374
Pathological Findings of Pemphigus Vulgaris Showing Giant Cobblestone-Like Conjunctival Papillae
Hiroyuki Namba (2013)
Phase 3 Multi-Center Trial Evaluating the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Isunakinra (EBI-005) in Subjects with Moderate to Severe Allergic Conjunctivitis
M. Goldstein (2016)
10.1016/j.pathophys.2017.05.005
Interleukin-6 participation in pathology of ocular diseases.
Forouhe Zahir-Jouzdani (2017)
10.1016/j.jfma.2012.07.017
Surgical management and immunohistochemical study of corneal plaques in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.
H. Lin (2013)
10.2147/OPTH.S99157
Efficacy and safety of low-dose topical tacrolimus in vernal keratoconjunctivitis
Samir S Shoughy (2016)
10.7869/DJO.2012.72
Tacrolimus for Ophthalmic Use: An Update
S. Tinwala (2013)
10.1016/j.jaip.2012.07.001
Leukotriene receptor antagonists in allergic eye disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Jennie M Gane (2013)
10.1016/B978-1-4557-2876-3.00014-6
14 – Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
K. C. Mathys (2013)
10.4172/2155-9570.1000115
Safety and Efficacy of Topical 0.1% And 0.05% Cyclosporine A in an Aqueous Solution in Steroid-Dependent Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in a Population of Mexican Children
L. Baiza-Durán (2010)
Effectiveness of Supratarsal Triamcinolone Injection in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
S. Khan (2015)
10.1016/B978-0-323-37579-5.00008-8
Allergic Rhinitis and Conjunctivitis
J. Corren (2017)
10.1007/s10792-011-9421-4
Supratarsal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and childhood allergic keratoconjunctivitis
S. Zaouali (2011)
10.4328/jcam.4261
Topical Use of Olopatadine and Cyclosporine a in Treatment of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
Zaure Knatova (2016)
10.1002/14651858.CD013298.PUB2
Systemic interventions for severe atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis in children and young people up to the age of 16 years.
Soyang Ella Kim (2020)
10.1016/j.jaip.2018.11.016
Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis-When Medication Fails.
Muhamad Ruzaini Abd Hamid (2019)
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