Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Second Generation Bioenergy Crops And Climate Change: A Review Of The Effects Of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 And Drought On Water Use And The Implications For Yield

R. Oliver, J. Finch, Gail Taylor
Published 2009 · Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Second‐generation, dedicated lignocellulosic crops for bioenergy are being hailed as the sustainable alternative to food crops for the generation of liquid transport fuels, contributing to climate change mitigation and increased energy security. Across temperate regions they include tree species grown as short rotation coppice and intensive forestry (e.g. Populus and Salix species) and C4 grasses such as miscanthus and switchgrass. For bioenergy crops it is paramount that high energy yields are maintained in order to drive the industry to an economic threshold where it has competitive advantage over conventional fossil fuel alternatives. Therefore, in the face of increased planting of these species, globally, there is a pressing need for insight into their responses to predicted changes in climate to ensure these crops are ‘climate proofed’ in breeding and improvement programmes. In this review, we investigate the physiological responses of bioenergy crops to rising atmospheric CO2 ([Ca]) and drought, with particular emphasis on the C3Salicaceae trees and C4 grasses. We show that while crop yield is predicted to rise by up to 40% in elevated [Ca], this is tempered by the effects of water deficit. In response to elevated [Ca] stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration decline and higher leaf–water potentials are observed. However, whole‐plant responses to [Ca] are often of lower magnitude and may even be positive (increased water use in elevated [Ca]). We conclude that rising [Ca] is likely to improve drought tolerance of bioenergy crop species due to improved plant water use, consequently yields in temperate environments may remain high in future climate scenarios.
This paper references
Plant CO2 responses: an issue of definition, time and resource supply.
C. Körner (2006)
A review of Jatropha curcas: an oil plant of unfulfilled promise☆
K. Openshaw (2000)
Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2– do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions?
R. Nowak (2004)
A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology
P. Curtis (1998)
Responses of two Populus clones to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the field.
R. Tognetti (1999)
Identifying QTL for yield in UK biomass poplar.
Gail Taylor (2001)
Plant water relations at elevated CO2 -- implications for water-limited environments.
S. Wullschleger (2002)
Hydrologic balance
KVR Schäfer (2002)
The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
J. duToit (2007)
Variations in stomatal density and index: implications for palaeoclimatic reconstructions
I. Poole (1996)
Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere
R. Oren (2001)
Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO 2
HG Jones (2002)
71: Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants
R. Ceulemans (1994)
Production, turnover and mycorrhizal colonization of root systems of three Populus species grown under elevated CO2 (POPFACE).
M. Lukáč (2003)
ABA-based chemical signalling: the co-ordination of responses to stress in plants.
S. Wilkinson (2002)
Water use of poplar clones grown as short-rotation coppice at two sites in the United Kingdom.
R. L. Hall (1997)
Fine root biomass
JK King (2001)
Tansley Review No. 71 Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2on woody plants
R. Ceulemans (1994)
The Genome of Black Cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)
G. Tuskan (2006)
Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? : a field test with 16 grassland species
P. Reich (2001)
Is stimulation
EA Ainsworth (2003)
Tropospheric O(3) compromises net primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated atmospheric CO(2).
J. King (2005)
The hydrological impacts of energy crop production in the UK. Final report
J. Finch (2004)
Comparative field water relations of three Mediterranean shrub species co-occurring at a natural CO(2) vent.
R. Tognetti (2000)
Biomass production physiology and soil carbon dynamics in short-rotation-grown Populus deltoides and P. deltoides × P. nigra hybrids
Ryan C. Dowell (2009)
Kö rner CH (1997) Carbon and water fluxes in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO 2 . Functional Ecology
R Stocker
Leaf and canopy responses to elevated CO 2 in a pine forest under free-air CO 2
D. Ellsworth (1995)
Rice responses to drought under carbon dioxide enrichment. 2. Photosynthesis and evapotranspiration
Jeffrey T. Baker (1997)
Transpiration from coppiced poplar and willow measured using sap-flow methods.
R. Hall (1998)
Tropospheric O3 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project
D. Karnosky (2003)
Comparative responses to water stress in stay-green, rapid- and slow senescing genotypes of the biomass crop, Miscanthus
J. Clifton-Brown (2002)
Sap velocity and canopy
SD Wullschleger (2001)
Water flux in a hybrid poplar stand.
T. Hinckley (1994)
Sustainable liquid biofuels from biomass: the writing's on the walls.
L. Gómez (2008)
Elevated CO2 increases sorghum biomass under drought conditions
M. Ottman (2001)
Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.
J. Johnson (2002)
Elevated CO2 and drought alter tissue water relations of birch (Betula populifolia Marsh.) seedlings
S. Morse (2004)
The effect of elevated [CO2] on growth and photosynthesis of two eucalyptus species exposed to high
JS Roden (1996)
Climate change scenarios for the United Kingdom: The UKCIP02 scientific report, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research
M Hulme (2002)
Photosynthetic acclimation of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long‐term growth in elevated pCO2 (FACE)
A. Rogers (2002)
The Blue Revolution, Drop by Drop, Gene by Gene
E. Pennisi (2008)
Photosynthetic performance and water relations in young pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) trees during drought stress and recovery.
A. Gallé (2007)
The genetics and genomics of the drought response in Populus.
N. Street (2006)
Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio-energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world
Liberloo (2006)
Growth at elevated CO(2) delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C(4) sugarcane.
J. Vu (2009)
The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions.
E. Ainsworth (2007)
Photosynthesis of a C3 grass and a C4 grass under elevated CO2
D. Nie (1992)
matal conductance of forest species after long - term exposure to elevated CO 2 concentration : a synthesis
BD Moore (2001)
fertilization : when , where , how much ?
JG Canadell (2007)
Photosynthetic responses of
E. Pinkard (1998)
Plants and Microclimate — A Quantitative Approach to Environmental Plant Physiology, 2nd edition, H.G. Jones. Cambridge University Press (1992), 428 pp., (ISBN 0-521-42524-7). Price: 19.95 Pounds.
C. Buschmann (1993)
Photosynthesis and conductance of spring-wheat leaves: field response to continuous free-air atmospheric CO2 enrichment
R. Garcia (1998)
The Effect of Elevated [CO2] on Growth and Photosynthesis of Two Eucalyptus Species Exposed to High Temperatures and Water Deficits
J. Roden (1996)
Tree and forest functioning
H Saxe (1998)
Water savings in mature deciduous
S Leuzinger (2007)
Water vapour fluxes and their impact under elevated CO2 in a C4-tallgrass prairie
C. Owensby (1997)
Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Four Poplar Clones. II. Leaf Surface Properties
K. Radoglou (1990)
Water stress inhibits plant photosynthesis by decreasing coupling factor and ATP
W. Tezara (1999)
Three years of free‐air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE) only slightly affect profiles of light and leaf characteristics in closed canopies of Populus
B. Gielen (2003)
Reduced stomatal conductance in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) sustained over long‐term CO2 enrichment
Jeffrey D. Herrick (2004)
The likely impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on natural and managed Populus: a literature review.
B. Gielen (2001)
CO2 Fertilization: When, Where, How Much?
C. Körner (2007)
Stomatal conductance and not stomatal density determines the long-term reduction in leaf transpiration of poplar in elevated CO2
P. Tricker (2005)
Water Use Efficiency and Biomass Partitioning of Three Different Miscanthus Genotypes with Limited and Unlimited Water Supply
J. Clifton-Brown (2000)
Sensitivity of stomatal and canopy conductance to elevated CO2 concentration – interacting variables and perspectives of scale
S. Wullschleger (2002)
Defining leaf traits linked to yield in short-rotation coppice Salix
K. Robinson (2004)
Morphological traits of 30 willow clones and their relationship to biomass production.
Pradeep J. Tharakan (2005)
CO2 enrichment increases water-use efficiency in sorghum
Matthew M. Conley (2001)
Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply
T. Lee (2001)
Keeping a positive carbon balance under adverse conditions: responses of photosynthesis and respiration to water stress
J. Flexas (2006)
Photosynthetic down-regulation in Larrea tridentata exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2: Interaction with drought under glasshouse and field (FACE) exposure
T. Huxman (1998)
Stomatal conductance of forest species after long‐term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration: a synthesis
B. Medlyn (2001)
Plant genetics: the blue revolution, drop
E Pennisi (2008)
Rice responses to drought under carbon dioxide enrichment. 1. Growth and yield
Jeffrey T. Baker (1997)
Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA]
A. B. Leakey (2006)
The interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition: the physiological and molecular background
M. Stitt (1999)
Hydrologic balance in an intact temperate forest ecosystem under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration
K. Schäfer (2002)
Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest
R. Norby (1999)
Breeding for high water-use efficiency.
A. G. Condon (2004)
Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations
S. Long (2006)
Limitation to photosynthesis
DW Lawlor (2002)
Carbon flux and
C Körner (2005)
Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World
S. Lavorel (2007)
Hydrological effects of short rotation energy coppice
R. E. Hall (1996)
Will photosynthesis of maize ( Zea mays ) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [ CO 2 ] rich atmospheres ? An analysis of diurnal courses of CO 2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment ( FACE )
A. D. B. L EAK (2004)
Drought—CO2 interactions in trees observations and mechanisms
D. Beerling (1996)
Water use efficiency of short-rotation Salix viminalis at leaf, tree and stand scales.
A. Lindroth (1996)
Making Every Drop Count in the Buildup to a Blue Revolution
E. Finkel (2009)
Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere
Henrik Saxe (1998)
Sap velocity and canopy transpiration in a sweetgum stand exposed to free‐air CO2 enrichment (FACE)
S. Wullschleger (2001)
Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantation during 3 years of CO2 enrichment
C. A. Gunderson (2002)
Carbon partitioning to mobile and structural fractions in poplar wood under elevated CO2 (EUROFACE) and N fertilization.
Z. Luo (2006)
Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups
Hendrik Poorter (2003)
CO2 enrichment in a maturing pine forest: are CO2 exchange and water status in the canopy affected?
D. Ellsworth (1999)
How plants cope with water stress in the field. Photosynthesis and growth.
M. Chaves (2002)
Increased leaf area expansion of hybrid poplar in elevated CO2. From controlled environments to open-top chambers and to FACE.
G. Taylor (2001)
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment increases growth and photosynthesis of Pinus taeda: a 4 year experiment in the field
D. Tissue (1997)
Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.
J. Uddling (2008)
Functional responses
RS Nowak (2004)
Soil fertility limits
R Oren (2001)
Plant growth and competition
H Poorter (2003)
Hydrological effects of short rotation energy coppice. Final report to ETSU
R. Hall (1996)
Bioenergy from plants and the sustainable yield challenge.
A. Karp (2008)
Stomatal and non - stomatal limitation to photosynthesis in two trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides
G. K. Posila (2001)
Guard cell metabolism and CO2 sensing.
Alain Vavasseur (2005)
Interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and drought on cherry (Prunus avium) seedlings II. Photosynthetic capacity and water relations
M. Centritto (1999)
The biochemical and molecular basis for photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric CO2
B. Moore (1999)
Defining leaf traits
KM Robinson (2004)
Photosynthetic acclimation
A Rogers (2002)
Forest response
RJ Norby (2005)
Responses of wild C4 and C3 grass (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta‐analytic test of current theories and perceptions
S. J. Wand (1999)
Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses of poplars to free‐air CO2 enrichment (PopFACE) during the first growth cycle and immediately following coppice
C. Bernacchi (2003)
Elevated atmospheric CO2 improved Sorghum plant water status by ameliorating the adverse effects of drought
G. Wall (2001)
Interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and drought on cherry (Prunus avium) seedlings I. Growth, whole‐plant water use efficiency and water loss
M. Centritto (1999)
The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
JW Finch (2004)
Growth at elevated CO2 delays the adverse effects of drought stress on leaf photosynthesis of the C4 sugarcane
Vu JCV (2009)
Effects of source‐sink relations on photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2
W. Arp (1991)
Effects of Water Deficits on Carbon Assimilation
M. Chaves (1991)
Water-use efficiency of willow: Variation with season, humidity and biomass allocation
A. Lindroth (1994)
Interactive Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Drought on Wheat
G. Wall (2006)
Woody biomass production during the second rotation of a bio‐energy Populus plantation increases in a future high CO2 world
Marion L Iberloo (2006)
Comparative responses of model C3 and C4 plants to drought in low and elevated CO2
J. Ward (1999)
Tropospheric O3 compromises net primary production in young stands of trembling aspen, paper birch and sugar maple in response to elevated atmospheric CO2
J. King (2005)
Limitation to photosynthesis in water-stressed leaves: stomata vs. metabolism and the role of ATP.
D. W. Lawlor (2002)
Leaf area dynamics in a closed poplar plantation under free-air carbon dioxide enrichment.
B. Gielen (2001)
The biochemical and molecular basis for photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO 2
Morse (1999)
Paleoatmospheric signatures in neogene fossil
J Van der Burgh (1993)
Photosynthesis of a C 3 and a C 4 grass under elevated CO 2
A Noormets (1992)
Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels
F. Woodward (1987)
Effects of elevated (CO2) on photosynthesis in European forest species: a meta-analysis of model parameters
B. Medlyn (1999)
Water savings in mature deciduous forest trees under elevated CO2
S. Leuzinger (2007)
Future atmospheric CO2 leads to delayed autumnal senescence
Gail Taylor (2007)
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants FACE the future.
S. Long (2004)
What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2.
E. Ainsworth (2005)
Diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis under drought and salinity in C(3) plants.
J. Flexas (2004)
Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum
J. Triggs (2004)
Populus: arabidopsis for forestry. Do we need a model tree?
Gail Taylor (2002)
Response of red alder seedlings to CO enrichment and water stress
D. Hibbs (1995)
Understanding plant responses to drought - from genes to the whole plant.
M. M. Chaves (2003)
Photosynthetic acclimation in trees to rising atmospheric CO2: A broader perspective
C. A. Gunderson (2004)
Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [CO2] rich atmospheres? An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free‐air concentration enrichment (FACE)
A. B. Leakey (2004)
Can fast-growing plantation trees escape biochemical down-regulation of photosynthesis when grown throughout their complete production cycle in the open air under elevated carbon dioxide?
P. Davey (2006)
Carbon Flux and Growth in Mature Deciduous Forest Trees Exposed to Elevated CO2
C. Körner (2005)
Elevated CO2 and tree root growth: contrasting responses in Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris
M. Crookshanks (1998)
Drought constraints on C4 photosynthesis: stomatal and metabolic limitations in C3 and C4 subspecies of Alloteropsis semialata.
B. Ripley (2007)
Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records
N. Gedney (2006)
Leaf area is stimulated in Populus by free air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE), through increased cell expansion and production
R. Ferris (2001)
Elevated CO 2 increases sorghum biomass under drought conditions
MJ Ottman (2001)
Carbon and water fluxes in a calcareous grassland under elevated CO2
R. Stocker (1997)
Photosynthetic responses of Populus przewalski subjected to drought stress
C. Y. Yin (2005)
Responses of deciduous forest trees to severe drought in Central Europe.
S. Leuzinger (2005)
Is stimulation of leaf photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide concentration maintained in the long term? A test with Lolium perenne grown for 10 years at two nitrogen fertilization levels under Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)
E. Ainsworth (2003)
Carbon-Negative Biofuels from Low-Input High-Diversity Grassland Biomass
D. Tilman (2006)
Leaf and canopy responses to elevated CO2 in a pine forest under free-air CO2 enrichment
D. Ellsworth (2004)
Ceulemans R (1999) Tree responses to rising CO 2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest
R J Norby
Water-use efficiency of short
A Lindroth (1996)
The Atnospheric Boundary Layer
JR Garratt (1992)
Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
D. Griggs (2002)
Increased growth efficiency of Quercus alba trees in a CO2‐enriched atmosphere
R. Norby (1995)
No photosynthetic down‐regulation in sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) after three years of CO2 enrichment at the Duke Forest FACE experiment
J. D. Herrick (2001)
MORE EFFICIENT PLANTS: A Consequence of Rising Atmospheric CO2?
B. Drake (1997)
Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation.
C. Calfapietra (2003)
Sucrose cycling, Rubisco expression, and prediction of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric CO2
B. Moore (1998)
Fine-root production dominates response of a deciduous forest to atmospheric CO2 enrichment.
R. Norby (2004)
Mapping the walls of the kingdom: the view from the horsetails.
J. P. Knox (2008)
Elevated CO2 reduces sap flux in mature deciduous forest trees
P. G. Cech (2003)
Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity.
R. Norby (2005)
Water use of a bioenergy plantation increases in a future high CO2 world
P. Tricker (2009)
Irrigating short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplars
E. A. Hansen (1988)
Do species
PB Reich (2001)
Spatial and temporal effects of free-air CO2 enrichment (popface) on leaf growth, cell expansion, and cell production in a closed canopy of poplar
G Taylor (2003)
What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO 2 enrichment ( FACE ) ? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis , canopy properties and plant production to rising CO 2
E. Ainsworth (2004)
Paleoatmospheric Signatures in Neogene Fossil Leaves
J. Van Der Burgh (1993)

This paper is referenced by
A synthesis of the ecosystem services impact of second generation bioenergy crop production
R. A. Holland (2015)
Role of Energy Crops to Meet the Rural Energy Needs: An Overview
P. Das (2020)
The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints
H. Haberl (2010)
Estimating the supply of biomass from short-rotation coppice in England, given social, economic and environmental constraints to land availability
Matthew J. Aylott (2010)
Plant breeding for an EU bio-based economy.
Aad Van Elsen (2013)
Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol 1
Emiliano Jozami (2016)
Water use and yield of bioenergy poplar in future climates: modelling the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate on productivity and water use
R. Oliver (2015)
Biomass production of maize (Zea mays L.) cropping in exceptionally advantageous conditions in central Wielkopolska (Poland)
Z. Bernacki (2018)
Bioenergy Crops: Recent Advances and Future Outlook
Pramendra Yadav (2019)
Effects on aquatic and human health due to large scale bioenergy crop expansion.
B. Love (2011)
10 New Insights into Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution and Function
Claire Veneault-Fourrey (2013)
Algal biofuel and their impact on agriculture and environment.
Tara Singh Bisth (2015)
Physiological Assessment of Water Stress in Potato Using Spectral Information
A. Romero (2017)
Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability
C. Mora (2015)
Solute patterns and diurnal variation of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in Korean coastal sand dune plants
J. Hwang (2016)
Phenotypic variation of Salix viminalis in well-watered and drought conditions
S. Lee (2012)
Fueling the Future: Impacts of Climate Change and Land Use on the Economic Viability of Second Generation Biofuels
M. Jayaraman (2013)
Drought effec ts on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthusas bioenergy
Rachel M. Emerson (2014)
Biophysical and hydrological effects of future climate change including trends in CO2, in the St. Joseph River watershed, Eastern Corn Belt
Ruoyu Wang (2017)
China's bioenergy potential
Tao Sang (2011)
A county‐level estimation of renewable surface water and groundwater availability associated with potential large‐scale bioenergy feedstock production scenarios in the United States
Hui. Xu (2019)
Yield potential of Miscanthus energy crops in the Loess Plateau of China
W. Liu (2012)
The Effects of Moderate and Severe Salinity on Composition and Physiology in the Biomass Crop Miscanthus × giganteus.
Evangelia Stavridou (2020)
Energy crops to combat climate change.
Abdullah Ahmad Jaradat (2011)
Spartina argentinensis as feedstock for bioethanol
Emiliano Jozami (2013)
Mapping the leaf proteome of Miscanthus sinensis and its application to the identification of heat-responsive proteins
S. Sharmin (2013)
Hydrogen Production and Remediation of Carbon and Pollutants
E. Lichtfouse (2015)
Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks
R. Emerson (2014)
The competition between winter rape (C3) and maize (C4) plants in response to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature, and drought stress
J. Miliauskienė (2016)
Agricultural Applications
K. Esser (2013)
Assessing the effects of nitrogen deposition and climate on carbon isotope discrimination and intrinsic water-use efficiency of angiosperm and conifer trees under rising CO2 conditions.
S. Leonardi (2012)
Expression Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping across Water Availability Environments Reveals Contrasting Associations with Genomic Features in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN]
D. B. Lowry (2013)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar