The Inhibition Of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Contraction By Hydrogen Ions And Phosphate.
Published 1988 · Chemistry, Medicine
1. The effects of phosphate and protons on the mechanics and energetics of muscle contraction have been investigated using glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle. 2. Fibres were fully activated by addition of Ca2+ (pCa 4-5) at 10 degrees C. The velocities of contraction were measured in isotonic load clamps, and the velocities of unloaded fibres were measured by applying a series of step changes in fibre length. Fibre ATPase activity was monitored using an enzyme system to couple ADP production to reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and measuring the depletion of NADH by optical density. 3. At pH 7.0 and 3 mM-phosphate, isometric tension (P0) was 13.2 +/- 0.9 N/cm (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10 observations), the maximum contraction velocity (Vmax) was 1.63 +/- 0.05 lengths/s (n = 5) and the ATPase activity was 1.27 +/- 0.12 s-1 myosin head-1 (n = 35). Increasing phosphate from 3 to 20 mM at pH 7.0 does not affect Vmax, causes a small decrease in the ATPase activity (15-20%) and decreases P0 by approximately 20%. Changing pH from 7 to 6 at 3 mM-phosphate decreases P0 by 45% and both Vmax and ATPase activity by 25-30%. The effects of changing both pH and phosphate were approximately additive for all parameters measured. The inhibition of these parameters by low pH and high concentration of phosphate was reversible. 4. The force-velocity relation was fitted by the Hill equation using a non-linear least-squares method. The value of the parameter which describes the curvature, a/P0, was 0.20. The curvature of the force-velocity relation was not changed by addition of phosphate or by changes in pH. 5. These data provide information on both the kinetics of the actomyosin interaction and on the process of muscle fatigue. The data are consistent with models of cross-bridge kinetics in which phosphate is released within the powerstroke in a step involving a rapid equilibrium between states. The inhibition by protons is more complex, and may involve less specific effects on protein structure. 6. During moderate fatigue of living skeletal muscle, MgATP concentration is known to remain approximately constant at 4 mM, phosphate to increase from 3 to 20 mM, and protons from 0.1 to 1 microM. The data suggest that much of the inhibition of P0 observed during moderate fatigue can be explained by the increased levels of phosphate and protons, and that much of the inhibition of fibre Vmax and ATPase activity can be explained by the increase in protons.