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Ultralight, Ultrastiff Mechanical Metamaterials

X. Zheng, Howon Lee, T. Weisgraber, M. Shusteff, J. Deotte, E. Duoss, J. Kuntz, M. Biener, Q. Ge, J. Jackson, S. Kucheyev, N. Fang, C. Spadaccini
Published 2014 · Materials Science, Medicine

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Microlattices make marvelous materials Framework or lattice structures can be remarkably strong despite their very low density. Using a very precise technique known as projection microstereolithography, Zheng et al. fabricated octet microlattices from polymers, metals, and ceramics. The design of the lattices meant that the individual struts making up the materials did not bend under pressure. The materials were therefore exceptionally stiff, strong, and lightweight. Science, this issue p. 1373 Ultralow-density materials that deform through tension or compression rather than bending show much higher stiffness. The mechanical properties of ordinary materials degrade substantially with reduced density because their structural elements bend under applied load. We report a class of microarchitected materials that maintain a nearly constant stiffness per unit mass density, even at ultralow density. This performance derives from a network of nearly isotropic microscale unit cells with high structural connectivity and nanoscale features, whose structural members are designed to carry loads in tension or compression. Production of these microlattices, with polymers, metals, or ceramics as constituent materials, is made possible by projection microstereolithography (an additive micromanufacturing technique) combined with nanoscale coating and postprocessing. We found that these materials exhibit ultrastiff properties across more than three orders of magnitude in density, regardless of the constituent material.
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