Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Lipid Analyses For Viable Microbial Biomass, Community Composition, Metabolic Status, And In Situ Metabolism
D. Hedrick, A. Peacock, D. White
Published 2007 · Biology
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
This chapter discusses how phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and other lipids can be used to estimate total viable microbial biomass, community composition, and metabolic status as well as the use of in situ 13C incorporation to determine metabolic pathways in environmental samples. The viable microbial biomass increases with the availability of metabolizable substrates and may decrease after their exhaustion. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of PLFA as their methyl esters provides greater sensitivity and specificity than the LP method and additionally provides detailed information on the microbial community composition and metabolic status. Some PLFA are indicative of particular phylogenic groups, and considered together with the environment from which the sample was retrieved, can be helpful in interpreting results. Biomarkers for the metabolic status of microbial communities include those for starvation and toxicity, unbalanced growth, and aerobic versus anaerobic growth, among others. Ubiquinones (UQ) are biomarkers for oxic respiration that mediate electron transport to oxygen and nitrate, while menaquinones (MK) can carry electrons to any electron acceptor. Besides the major respiratory quinones UQ and MK, Bacteria and Archaea also contain desmethylmenaquinones, methionaquinones, plastoquinones, rhodoquinones, and caldariellaquinones, which can also vary in the length of the side chain and, in the case of MK, in the degree of hydrogenation of the side chain.
This paper references
Characterization of the iso-branched sphinganines from the ceramide phospholipids of Bacteroides melaninogenicus.
D. White (1969)
Effect of light on biomass and community structure of estuarine detrital microbiota.
R. J. Bobbie (1981)
Linking of Microorganisms to Phenanthrene Metabolism in Soil by Analysis of 13C-Labeled Cell Lipids
A. Johnsen (2002)
Plasmalogen composition of Anaeroplasma.
T. Langworthy (1975)
Structure of the Microbial Communities in Coniferous Forest Soils in Relation to Site Fertility and Stand Development Stage
T. Pennanen (1999)
Molecular and isotopic tracers used to examine sources of organic matter and its incorporation into the food webs of San Francisco Bay
E. A. Canuel (1995)
Microbial incorporation of 13C-labeled acetate at the field scale: detection of microbes responsible for reduction of U(VI).
Y. Chang (2005)
Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication.
M. Collins (1981)
High-performance liquid chromatography of mycolic acids as a tool in the identification of Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium species.
W. Butler (1986)
Characterization of Multiple-Substrate Utilization by Anthracene-Degrading Mycobacterium frederiksbergense LB501T
L. Wick (2003)
Microbial biomass measured as total lipid phosphate in soils of different organic content
Å. Frostegård (1991)
Phospholipid composition of Desulfovibrio species.
R. Makula (1974)
Sequential alkaline saponification/acid hydrolysis/esterification: a one-tube method with enhanced recovery of both cyclopropane and hydroxylated fatty acids
W. Mayberry (1993)
Carbon isotopic fractionation in lipids from methanotrophic bacteria II: the effects of physiology and environmental parameters on the biosynthesis and isotopic signatures of biomarkers.
L. Jahnke (1999)
Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profile changes during nutrient deprivation of Vibrio cholerae: increases in the trans/cis ratio and proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids.
J. B. Guckert (1986)
Microbial respiratory quinones in the environment. I: A sensitive liquid chromatographic method
D. Hedrick (1986)
Biosynthetic effects on the stable carbon isotopic compositions of algal lipids: implications for deciphering the carbon isotopic biomarker record
Stefan Schouten (1998)
Iso- and anteiso-fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function, and taxonomic significance.
T. Kaneda (1991)
Determination of the sedimentary microbial biomass by extractible lipid phosphate
D. White (2004)
Isotopic composition of fatty acids of extremely piezophilic bacteria from the Mariana Trench at 11,000 m
J. Fang (2002)
Influence of phosphorus on the composition of polar lipids of Actinomyces olivaceus.
I. Konova (1978)
Utilization of Microbial Biofilms as Monitors of Bioremediation
A. Peacock (2003)
Measuring soil microbial community diversity using polar lipid fatty acid and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis data.
D. Hedrick (2000)
Determination of microbial fatty acid profiles at femtomolar levels in human urine and the initial marine microfouling community by capillary gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry with negative ion detection
G. Odham (1985)
Monitoring deep subsurface microbiota for assessment of safe long-term nuclear waste disposal
D. White (1996)
Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement
A. Magurran (1988)
Archaebacterial ether lipid diversity analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography: integration with a bacterial lipid protocol.
D. Hedrick (1991)
Polar lipids and fatty acids of Pseudomonas cepacia.
A. Cox (1989)
Long-Chain Diols: A New Class of Membrane Lipids from a Thermophilic Bacterium
J. L. Pond (1986)
Ornithine lipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: its distribution in some slow- and fast-growing mycobacteria.
M. Lanéelle (1990)
Laboratory study of disturbance in marine sediments: response of a microbial community
R. H. Findlay (1990)
Identification of methanotrophic lipid biomarkers in cold-seep mussel gills: chemical and isotopic analysis.
L. Jahnke (1995)
Mutation of Bacillus firmus OF4 to duramycin resistance results in substantial replacement of membrane lipid phosphatidylethanolamine by its plasmalogen form.
S. Clejan (1989)
Ornithine-containing lipid of Bordetella pertussis, a new type of hemagglutinin.
Y. Kawai (1983)
Effects of growth temperature on fatty acid and alk-1-enyl group compositions of Veillonella parvula and Megasphaera elsdenii phospholipids.
N. C. Johnston (1982)
Structure and properties of the outer membranes of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.
I. Moriyón (1998)
Membrane fatty acids as phenotypic markers in the polyphasic taxonomy of methylotrophs within the Proteobacteria.
J. B. Guckert (1991)
Various kinds of lipoamino acids including a novel serine-containing lipid in an opportunistic pathogen Flavobacterium. Their structures and biological activities on erythrocytes.
Y. Kawai (1988)
Phospholipid, ester-linked fatty acid profiles as reproducible assays for changes in prokaryotic community structure of estuarine sediments
J. B. Guckert (1985)
Changes in Ester-Linked Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Subsurface Bacteria during Starvation and Desiccation in a Porous Medium.
T. L. Kieft (1994)
A new 15,16-dimethyl-30-glyceryloxytriacontanoic acid from lipids of Thermotoga maritima
M. Rosa (1988)
The use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil
A. Frostegård (2004)
Carbon isotopic fractionations associated with thermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Persephonella marina.
C. Zhang (2002)
Complex evolution of photosynthesis.
Jin Xiong (2002)
Stable-isotope probing of nucleic acids: a window to the function of uncultured microorganisms.
S. Radajewski (2003)
Dynamics of a Pasture Soil Microbial Community after Deposition of Cattle Urine Amended with [13C]Urea
S. Petersen (2004)
In situ detection of changes in soil bacterial and fungal activities by measuring 13C incorporation into soil phospholipid fatty acids from 13C acetate
T. Arao (1999)
Isotopic relationships between saponifiable lipids and cellulose nitrate prepared from red, brown and green algae
L. Sternberg (2004)
Quantitative lipid biomarker detection of unculturable microbes and chlorine exposure in water distribution system biofilms
C. A. Smith (2000)
Interpretation of Fatty Acid Profiles of Soil Microorganisms
D. Hedrick (2005)
Linking Toluene Degradation with Specific Microbial Populations in Soil
J. R. Hanson (1999)
Ratios of Carbon Isotopes in Microbial Lipids as an Indicator of Substrate Usage
W. R. Abraham (1998)
Use of Gas Chromatographic Fatty Acid and Mycolic Acid Cleavage Product Determination To Differentiate among Mycobacterium genavense, Mycobacterium fortuitum,Mycobacterium simiae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
S. Chou (1998)
Lipid composition of the phosphatidylcholine-producing bacterium Hyphomicrobium vulgare NP-160.
S. G. Batrakov (1996)
Chemical ecology : possible linkage between macro- and microbial ecology
D. White (1995)
Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Lipid Biomarkers of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
K. Londry (2004)
Impacts of Carbon and Flooding on Soil Microbial Communities: Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Substrate Utilization Patterns
D. Bossio (1998)
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization for simultaneous mass spectrometric analysis of microbial respiratory ubiquinones and menaquinones.
R. Geyer (2004)
The effects of varying CO2 concentration on lipid composition and carbon isotope fractionation in Emiliania huxleyi
U. Riebesell (2000)
Compound-Specific Isotopic Fractionation Patterns Suggest Different Carbon Metabolisms among Chloroflexus-Like Bacteria in Hot-Spring Microbial Mats
M. van der Meer (2003)
Stable Carbon Isotopic Fractionations Associated with Inorganic Carbon Fixation by Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria
Stefan Schouten (2004)
Quantitative determination of the nutritional status of detrital microbiota and the grazing fauna by triglyceride glycerol analysis
M. J. Gehron (1982)
Characterization of sulphate-reducing bacterial populations within marine and estuarine sediments with different rates of sulphate reduction
R. J. Parkes (1993)
Effects of substrate concentration, growth state, and oxygen availability on relationships among bacterial carbon, nitrogen and phospholipid phosphorus content
J. Brinch-Iversen (1990)
Whole-cell and membrane lipids of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium.
T. Weaver (1975)
Measurement of methanotroph and methanogen signature phosopholipids for use in assessment of biomass and community structure in model systems
P. Nichols (1987)
Carbon isotope signatures of fatty acids in Geobacter metallireducens and Shewanella algae
C. Zhang (2003)
Lipid and carbon isotopic evidence of methane-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in association with gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico
C. Zhang (2002)
Isotopic compositions of lipid biomarker compounds in estuarine plants and surface sediments
E. Canuel (1997)
The replacement of phosphatidylethanolamine and acidic phospholipids by an ornithine‐amide lipid and a minor phosphorus‐free lipid in Pseudomonas flourescens NCMB 129
D. Minnikin (1974)
Trans unsaturated fatty acids in bacteria
H. Keweloh (2006)
Thermotoga maritima sp. nov. represents a new genus of unique extremely thermophilic eubacteria growing up to 90°C
R. Huber (2004)
The budding bacteria, Pirellula and Planctomyces, with atypical 16S rRNA and absence of peptidoglycan, show eubacterial phospholipids and uniquely high proportions of long chain beta-hydroxy fatty acids in the lipopolysaccharide lipid A
B. Kerger (2004)
Isolation and characterization of an ornithine-containing lipid from Desulfovibrio gigas.
R. Makula (1975)
Detection of the anaerobic dechlorinating microorganism Desulfomonile tiedjei in environmental matrices by its signature lipopolysacchride branched-long-chain hydroxy fatty acids
D. Ringelberg (1994)
Efficacy of phospholipid analysis in determining microbial biomass in sediments.
R. Findlay (1989)
Ornithine-containing lipids of some Pseudomonas species.
Y. Kawai (1988)
Determination of phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids and poly β-hydroxybutyrate for the estimation of bacterial biomass and activity in the rhizosphere of the rape plant Brassica napus (L.)
A. Tunlid (1985)
THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF FIVE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES
M. P. Mansour (1999)
Aromatic-degrading Sphingomonas isolates from the deep subsurface.
J. Fredrickson (1995)
Mixotrophic growth of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on glycerol: growth rate and fatty acid profile
M. GarcI (2004)
Measurement of phospholipid fatty acids at picomolar concentrations in biofilms and deep subsurface sediments using gas chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry
A. Tunlid (1989)
Characterization and In Situ Carbon Metabolism of Phototrophic Consortia
J. Glaeser (2003)
Thermosipho africanus gen. nov., Represents a New Genus of Thermophilic Eubacteria within the “Thermotogales”
R. Huber (1989)
Lipid biomarkers and carbon-isotopes of modern travertine deposits (Yellowstone National Park, USA): Implications for biogeochemical dynamics in hot-spring systems
C. Zhang (2004)
Stable-Carbon-Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Hydrothermal Vent Mussels Containing Methanotrophic and Thiotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts
D. Pond (1998)
Practical considerations in the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry of 13C-enriched compounds: detection limits and carryover effects.
H. Mottram (2003)
Isolation and characterization of outer and inner membranes of Selenomonas ruminantium: lipid compositions.
Y. Kamio (1980)
Variation in Phospholipid Ester-Linked Fatty Acids and Carotenoids of Desiccated Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) from Different Geographic Locations.
M. Potts (1987)
Biosynthesis of phospholipids in Clostridium butyricum: kinetics of synthesis of plasmalogens and the glycerol acetal of ethanolamine plasmalogen.
Yosuke Koga (1984)
Response of a benthic microbial community to biotic disturbance
R. H. Findlay (1990)
Phospholipid composition and metabolism of Micrococcus denitrificans.
B. Wilkinson (1972)
Effects of grazing by estuarine gammaridean amphipods on the microbiota of allochthonous detritus.
S. Morrison (1980)
The structure of an ornithine-containing lipid from Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
H. Knoche (1972)
In situ assessment of biodegradation potential using biotraps amended with 13C-labeled benzene or toluene.
R. Geyer (2005)
Membrane lipids of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.
M. Linscheid (1997)
Isotopic fractionation associated with biosynthesis of fatty acids by a marine bacterium under oxic and anoxic conditions
Mark A. Teece (1999)
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods for the analysis of mycocerosic acids present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
S. Alugupalli (1998)
Comparison of phylogenetic relationships based on phospholipid fatty acid profiles and ribosomal RNA sequence similarities among dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria.
L. L. Kohring (1994)
Biochemical Measurements of Microbial Mass and Activity from Environmental Samples
D. White (1979)
Analysis of phospholipids and ornithine-containing lipids from Mesorhizobium spp.
A. Choma (2002)
Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.
E. Lichtfouse (2000)
13C Incorporation into Signature Fatty Acids as an Assay for Carbon Allocation in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
P. Olsson (2005)
Effect of Butanol Challenge and Temperature on Lipid Composition and Membrane Fluidity of Butanol-Tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum.
S. Baer (1987)
Quantitative characterization of microbial biomass and community structure in subsurface material: a prokaryotic consortium responsive to organic contamination
G. A. Smith (1986)
Forensic Analysis by Comprehensive Rapid Detection of Pathogens and Contamination Concentrated in Biofilms in Drinking Water Systems for Water Resource Protection and Management
D. White (2003)
Validation of signature polarlipid fatty acid biomarkers for alkane-utilizing bacteria in soils and subsurface aquifer materials
D. Ringelberg (1989)
Poly-beta-Hydroxybutyrate Accumulation as a Measure of Unbalanced Growth of the Estuarine Detrital Microbiota.
J. S. Nickels (1979)
Lipid composition of growing and starving cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes.
L. L. Kostiw (1972)
Fatty acid composition of six freshwater wild cyanobacterial species
T. Řezanka (2008)
The degradation of 14C-labelled phosphatidyl choline in soil
T. Tollefson (1983)
Phospholipid Furan Fatty Acids and Ubiquinone-8: Lipid Biomarkers That May Protect Dehalococcoides Strains from Free Radicals
D. White (2005)
Electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry compatible reversed-phase separation of phospholipids: piperidine as a post column modifier for negative ion detection.
C. A. Lytle (2000)
Isoprenoid quinones as biomarkers of microbial populations in the environment.
A. Hiraishi (1999)
Structural determination and quantitative analysis of bacterial phospholipids using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry
J. Fang (1998)
Stable isotope pulse-chasing and compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids to assess methane oxidizing bacterial populations in landfill cover soils.
Z. M. Crossman (2004)
Determination of monosaturated fatty acid double-bond position and geometry for microbial monocultures and complex consortia by capillary GC-MS of their dimethyl disulphide adducts
P. Nichols (1986)
Determinants of Soil Microbial Communities: Effects of Agricultural Management, Season, and Soil Type on Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles
D. Bossio (1998)
Carbon isotopic fractionation associated with lipid biosynthesis by a cyanobacterium: relevance for interpretation of biomarker records.
S. Sakata (1997)
Growth-Dependent Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Basidiomycete Fungi: δ13C Pattern and Physiological Process
M. R. Henn (2002)
Geobacter metallireducens gen. nov. sp. nov., a microorganism capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of iron and other metals
D. Lovley (2004)
Changes in bacteria recoverable from subsurface volcanic rock samples during storage at 4°C
D. L. Haldeman (1994)
Determination of monounsaturated double-bond position and geometry in the cellular fatty acids of the pathogenic bacterium Francisella tularensis.
P. Nichols (1985)
Spatial distribution of biochemical parameters indicating biomass and community composition of microbial assemblies in estuarine mud flat sediments.
T. Federle (1983)
A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification.
E. Bligh (1959)
This paper is referenced by
Field-scale uranium (VI) bioimmobilization monitored by lipid biomarkers and 13C-acetate incorporation
A. Peacock (2011)
Multivariate approach to characterizing soil microbial communities in pristine and agricultural sites in Northwest Argentina
M. Montecchia (2011)
Effects of diesel and interactions with copper and other metals in an estuarine sediment microbial community.
D. Hedrick (2009)
Multiply Methyl-Branched Fatty Acids and Diacids in the Polar Lipids of a Microaerophilic Subsurface Microbial Community
D. Hedrick (2008)
Biodegradation of Anaerobic, Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products
S. Rout (2015)
In Situ Ecophysiology of Microbial Biofilm Communities Analyzed by CMEIAS Computer-Assisted Microscopy at Single-Cell Resolution
F. Dazzo (2013)
Microbial Effects on RepositoryPerformance
P. Humphreys (2010)
Composition of microbial PLFAs and correlations with topsoil characteristics in the rare active travertine spring-fed fen
P. Hanajík (2016)
Gemmatirosa kalamazoonesis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the rarely-cultivated bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes.
J. DeBruyn (2013)
Fungi in lake ecosystems
Christian Wurzbacher (2010)