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Pathogenicity Islands And The Evolution Of Salmonella Virulence

E. Groisman, A. Blanc-Potard, K. Uchiya
Published 1999 · Biology

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This chapter discusses the structure and function of Salmonella-specific DNA segments that play a role in virulence. SPI-1 is a 40-kb DNA segment located at 63 min on the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome. It is flanked by two housekeeping genes, fhlA and mutS, and this distinguishes it from other pathogenicity islands (PAIs), which are typically adjacent to tRNA genes. The SpaN and SpaO proteins are required for secretion of all substrates by the SPI-1 secretory system, and thus they can be considered part of the export apparatus. At least six proteins are translocated into cultured epithelial cells by the SPI-1 secretion system. The major role of SPI-1 is to govern bacterial entry into nonphagocytic cells. However, SPI-1 genes have also been implicated in inflammation and macrophage apoptosis. SPI-1 genes are organized in several transcriptional units: avrA, prgHIJK, orfX, hilAiagB, the sipABCD operon that might extend through sptP,a large operon including genes from invF through spaT, and invH. SPI- 2 was introduced later in the evolution of Salmonella and conferred upon the microorganism the ability to proliferate within host cells and to cause systemic disease. Other Salmonella- specific sequences may specify host range, govern other aspects of infection, or mediate growth in nonhost environments.
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