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Suppression Of The Biocontrol AgentTrichoderma Harzianum By Mycelium Of The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Intraradices In Root-Free Soil

H. Green, J. Larsen, P. Olsson, D. Jensen, I. Jakobsen
Published 1999 · Biology, Medicine

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ABSTRACT Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent against several fungal soilborne plant pathogens. However, possible adverse effects of this fungus on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might be a drawback in its use in plant protection. The objective of the present work was to examine the interaction between Glomus intraradices and T. harzianum in soil. The use of a compartmented growth system with root-free soil compartments enabled us to study fungal interactions without the interfering effects of roots. Growth of the fungi was monitored by measuring hyphal length and population densities, while specific fatty acid signatures were used as indicators of living fungal biomass. Hyphal 33P transport and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity were used to monitor activity ofG. intraradices and a GUS-transformed strain of T. harzianum, respectively. As growth and metabolism of T. harzianum are requirements for antagonism, the impact of wheat bran, added as an organic nutrient source for T. harzianum, was investigated. The presence of T. harzianum in root-free soil reduced root colonization by G. intraradices. The external hyphal length density of G. intraradices was reduced by the presence of T. harzianum in combination with wheat bran, but the living hyphal biomass, measured as the content of a membrane fatty acid, was not reduced. Hyphal 33P transport by G. intraradices also was not affected by T. harzianum. This suggests that T. harzianum exploited the dead mycelium but not the living biomass of G. intraradices. The presence of external mycelium of G. intraradices suppressed T. harzianum population development and GUS activity. Stimulation of the hyphal biomass ofG. intraradices by organic amendment suggests that nutrient competition is a likely means of interaction. In conclusion, it seemed that growth of and phosphorus uptake by the external mycelium ofG. intraradices were not affected by the antagonistic fungus T. harzianum; in contrast, T. harzianumwas adversely affected by G. intraradices.
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