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Aqueous Ammonia Equilibrium Calculations: Effect Of PH And Temperature

Kenneth Emerson, Rosemarie C. Russo, Richard E. Lund, Robert V. Thurston

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The toxicity of ammonia to fishes has been attributed to the un-ionized ammonia chemical species present in aqueous solution. Because the percent of total ammonia present as un-ionized ammonia (NH3) is so dependent upon pH and temperature, an exact understanding of the aqueous ammonia equilibrium is important for toxicity studies. A critical evaluation of the literature data on the ammonia–water equilibrium system has been carried out. Results of calculations of values of pKa at different temperatures and of percent of NH3 in aqueous ammonia solutions of zero salinity as a function of pH and temperature are presented.