Nitrogen Transfer And Assimilation Between The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Intraradices Schenck & Smith And Ri T-DNA Roots Of Daucus Carota L. In An In Vitro Compartmented System
Nitrogen metabolism was examined in monoxenic cultures of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in mycorrhizal roots for which only the extraradical mycelium had exclusive access to NH4NO3 in a distinct hyphal compartment inaccessible to the roots. This was in comparison with the water controls but was similar to the enzyme activities of non-arbuscular-mycorrhizal (non-AM) roots that had direct access to NH4NO3. In addition, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly enhanced in AM roots compared with non-AM roots. Carrot roots took up 15NH4+ more efficiently than 15NO3–, and the extraradical hyphae transfered 15NH4+ to host roots from the hyphal compartment but did not transfer 15NO3–. The extraradical mycelium was shown, for the first time, to have a different glutamine synthetase monomer than roots. Our overall results highlight the active role of AM fungi in nitrogen uptake, transfer, and assimilation in their symbiotic root association.Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Ri T-DNA carrot roots, in vitro root-organ culture, nitrogen metabolism.