Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Proteolytic Activities That Mediate Apoptosis.

V. Kidd
Published 1998 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Since the discovery that cells can activate their own suicide program, investigators have attempted to determine whether the events that are associated with this form of cell death are genetically determined. The discovery that the ced-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a cysteine protease essential for developmentally regulated apoptosis ignited interest in this area of research. As a result, we now know that cell death is specified by a number of genes and that this biologic process contributes significantly to development, tumorigenesis, and autoimmune disease. In this review I summarize what is currently known about signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, with particular emphasis on the function of the cysteine proteases known as caspases. However, there is also evidence that protease-independent cell death pathways exist. Is there a relationship between these two distinct mechanisms? If so, how do they communicate? Finally, even though the involvement of tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor family of receptors and cysteine proteases has been elegantly established as a component of many apoptotic signaling pathways, what happens downstream of these initial events? Why are only a selected group of cellular proteins--many nuclear--the targets of these proteases? Are nuclear events essential for apoptosis in vivo? Are the cellular genes that encode products involved in apoptotic signaling frequent targets of mutation/alteration during tumorigenesis? These are only a few questions that may be answered in the next ten years.
This paper references
10.1074/JBC.270.39.22705
CrmA, a Poxvirus-encoded Serpin, Inhibits Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated Apoptosis (*)
M. Tewari (1995)
10.1083/JCB.135.6.1441
Lamin proteolysis facilitates nuclear events during apoptosis
L. Rao (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81992-3
CAR1, a TNFR–Related Protein, Is a Cellular Receptor for Cytopathic Avian Leukosis–Sarcoma Viruses and Mediates Apoptosis
J. Brojatsch (1996)
10.1038/359554A0
Cooperative interaction between c-myc and bcl-2 proto-oncogenes
A. Fanidi (1992)
CD95 (APO-1/Fas)-associating signalling proteins.
M. Peter (1996)
10.1074/jbc.272.24.15049
Identification of the MDM2 Oncoprotein as a Substrate for CPP32-like Apoptotic Proteases*
P. Erhardt (1997)
10.1016/S0962-8924(96)30061-5
A link between cell-surface receptors and ICE proteases.
M. Whyte (1996)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80252-6
TNF-dependent recruitment of the protein kinase RIP to the TNF receptor-1 signaling complex.
H. Hsu (1996)
10.1126/science.271.5250.805
Cell Killing by the Drosophila Gene reaper
K. White (1996)
Baculovirus P35 inhibits the glucocorticoid-mediated pathway of cell death.
N. Robertson (1997)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00598.x
The cytotoxic cell protease granzyme B initiates apoptosis in a cell‐free system by proteolytic processing and activation of the ICE/CED‐3 family protease, CPP32, via a novel two‐step mechanism.
S. J. Martin (1996)
10.1038/380075A0
Requirement for ceramide-initiated SAPK/JNK signalling in stress-induced apoptosis
M. Verheij (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80984-8
TRADD–TRAF2 and TRADD–FADD Interactions Define Two Distinct TNF Receptor 1 Signal Transduction Pathways
H. Hsu (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.48.30354
Bcl-2 Prevents CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-induced Degradation of Lamin B and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase and Restores the NF-κB Signaling Pathway*
M. Mandal (1996)
10.1128/MCB.16.6.2756
A mouse Fas-associated protein with homology to the human Mort1/FADD protein is essential for Fas-induced apoptosis.
J. Zhang (1996)
Cellular signaling in thymocyte apoptosis.
D. McConkey (1992)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90072-1
RIP: A novel protein containing a death domain that interacts with Fas/APO-1 (CD95) in yeast and causes cell death
B. Stanger (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90506-1
C. elegans cell survival gene ced-9 encodes a functional homolog of the mammalian proto-oncogene bcl-2
M. Hengartner (1994)
10.1083/JCB.133.5.1053
Constitutive expression of the machinery for programmed cell death
M. Weil (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.93.16.8395
Cleavage of lamin A by Mch2 alpha but not CPP32: multiple interleukin 1 beta-converting enzyme-related proteases with distinct substrate recognition properties are active in apoptosis.
A. Takahashi (1996)
The ability of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 to prevent apoptosis can be differentially regulated.Cell Death Differ.3:113–18
AR Gottschalk (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.15.8991
The CD95 (APO-1/Fas) Receptor Activates NF-B Independently of Its Cytotoxic Function (*)
A. Ponton (1996)
Inhibition of CPP32-like proteases prevents granzyme B- and Fas-, but not granzyme A-based cytotoxicity exerted by CTL clones.
A. Anel (1997)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4400217
Fas activates NF-κB and induces apoptosis in T-cell lines by signaling pathways distinct from those induced by TNF-α
G. Packham (1997)
10.1074/jbc.272.11.7421
Activation of Multiple Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme Homologues in Cytosol and Nuclei of HL-60 Cells during Etoposide-induced Apoptosis*
L. M. Martins (1997)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80450-1
Casper is a FADD- and caspase-related inducer of apoptosis.
H. Shu (1997)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80294-9
Daxx, a Novel Fas-Binding Protein That Activates JNK and Apoptosis
X. Yang (1997)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81375-6
Dissection of TNF Receptor 1 Effector Functions: JNK Activation Is Not Linked to Apoptosis While NF-κB Activation Prevents Cell Death
Z. Liu (1996)
10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00541-9
The cell-death machine
A. Chinnaiyan (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.44.27863
Increased Expression of the Insulin-like Growth Factor-II Gene in Wilms' Tumor Is Not Dependent on Loss of Genomic Imprinting or Loss of Heterozygosity*
W. H. Wang (1996)
Constitutive c-myc expression in an IL-3-dependent myeloid cell line suppresses cell cycle arrest and accelerates apoptosis.
D. Askew (1991)
10.1128/MCB.17.5.2468
Human Bak induces cell death in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with morphological changes similar to those with apoptosis in mammalian cells.
B. Ink (1997)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90528-X
Braking the cycle
T. Hunter (1993)
10.1084/JEM.185.7.1275
TRAF-interacting Protein (TRIP): A Novel Component of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR)- and CD30-TRAF Signaling Complexes That Inhibits TRAF2-mediated NF-κB Activation
S. Lee (1997)
10.1084/JEM.184.4.1331
Bcl-2 inhibits the mitochondrial release of an apoptogenic protease
S. Susin (1996)
10.1084/JEM.184.6.2445
Different Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme (ICE) Family Protease Requirements for the Apoptotic Death of T Lymphocytes Triggered by Diverse Stimuli
A. Sarin (1996)
10.1128/MCB.17.5.2835
Doom, a product of the Drosophila mod(mdg4) gene, induces apoptosis and binds to baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins.
A. Harvey (1997)
10.1016/0378-4274(92)90231-8
Mechanisms of cytotoxicity caused by antitumour drugs.
J. Hickman (1992)
10.1016/S0092-8674(94)90422-7
Ich-1, an Ice/ced-3-related gene, encodes both positive and negative regulators of programmed cell death
Lin Wang (1994)
10.1038/376037A0
Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis
D. Nicholson (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90150-7
Drosophila homologs of baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis proteins function to block cell death
B. Hay (1995)
10.1074/JBC.271.42.25735
Apoptotic Activity of REAPER Is Distinct from Signaling by the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 Death Domain*
P. Chen (1996)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb01007.x
RIP mediates tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 activation of NF‐kappaB but not Fas/APO‐1‐initiated apoptosis.
A. Ting (1996)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90327-5
Homology between reaper and the cell death domains of Fas and TNFR1
P. Golstein (1995)
10.1038/343076A0
Haemopoietic colony stimulating factors promote cell survival by suppressing apoptosis
G. Williams (1990)
10.1016/0952-7915(94)90102-3
Regulation of apoptosis in the immune system.
Peter H. Krammer (1994)
10.1128/MCB.14.1.427
Target cell death triggered by cytotoxic T lymphocytes: a target cell mutant distinguishes passive pore formation and active cell suicide mechanisms.
D. Ucker (1994)
10.1093/emboj/16.10.2794
FLICE is activated by association with the CD95 death‐inducing signaling complex (DISC)
J. P. Medema (1997)
The substrates of the cdc2 kinase.
E. Nigg (1991)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81874-7
Apoptosis by Death Factor
S. Nagata (1997)
10.1073/PNAS.93.20.10923
RIP and FADD: two "death domain"-containing proteins can induce apoptosis by convergent, but dissociable, pathways.
S. Grimm (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81266-0
FLICE, A Novel FADD-Homologous ICE/CED-3–like Protease, Is Recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) Death-Inducing Signaling Complex
M. Muzio (1996)
10.1101/GAD.10.14.1773
grim, a novel cell death gene in Drosophila.
P. Chen (1996)
10.1038/40901
X-linked IAP is a direct inhibitor of cell-death proteases
Q. Deveraux (1997)
10.1126/SCIENCE.275.5302.967
Somatic Frameshift Mutations in the BAX Gene in Colon Cancers of the Microsatellite Mutator Phenotype
N. Rampino (1997)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb00245.x
Cytotoxicity‐dependent APO‐1 (Fas/CD95)‐associated proteins form a death‐inducing signaling complex (DISC) with the receptor.
F. Kischkel (1995)
10.1016/0167-5699(94)90309-3
Coming to terms with death: apoptosis in cancer and immune development.
J. Ashwell (1994)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8332899
Induction of apoptosis by the low-affinity NGF receptor.
S. Rabizadeh (1993)
10.1146/ANNUREV.CB.07.110191.003311
Mechanisms and functions of cell death.
R. Ellis (1991)
TCR cross-linking induces CTL death via internal action of TNF.
J. Wang (1994)
Structure and mechanism of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme.
K. Wilson (1994)
10.1016/0955-0674(95)80030-1
Molecular control of life and death.
J. Yuan (1995)
Anti-apoptotic genes of baculoviruses.
R. Clem (1996)
Bcl2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death.Nature348:334–36
D Hockenbery (1990)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81383-5
Bcl-2 Targets the Protein Kinase Raf-1 to Mitochondria
H. Wang (1996)
10.1016/0092-8674(90)90815-V
Molecular cloning and expression of the human 55 kd tumor necrosis factor receptor
H. Loetscher (1990)
10.1073/PNAS.92.25.11894
A Fas-associated protein factor, FAF1, potentiates Fas-mediated apoptosis.
K. Chu (1995)
10.1073/PNAS.93.5.1972
Proteolytic activation of the cell death protease Yama/CPP32 by granzyme B.
L. T. Quan (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.2787530
Monoclonal antibody-mediated tumor regression by induction of apoptosis.
B. Trauth (1989)
10.1074/JBC.270.26.15870
Molecular Cloning and Pro-apoptotic Activity of ICErelII and ICErelIII, Members of the ICE/CED-3 Family of Cysteine Proteases (*)
N. A. Munday (1995)
10.1038/374731A0
Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K
S. Farrow (1995)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NE.14.030191.002321
Cell death during development of the nervous system.
R. Oppenheim (1991)
10.1042/BST0180634
The involvement of RNA and protein synthesis in programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.
S. Martin (1990)
10.1016/0966-842X(96)10047-0
Viral inhibition of apoptosis.
G. Gillet (1996)
10.1016/S0962-8924(00)89088-1
Two tumour necrosis factor receptors: structure and function.
P. Vandenabeele (1995)
10.1016/0952-7915(95)80079-4
The killer and the executioner: how apoptosis controls malignancy.
D. Green (1995)
Inhibition of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme by the cowpox virus serpin CrmA. An example of cross-class inhibition.
T. Komiyama (1994)
bcl - x , a bcl2related gene that functions as a dominant regulator of apoptotic cell death
LH Boise (1993)
10.1016/0968-0004(93)90042-L
The control of apoptosis in mammalian cells.
M. Collins (1993)
10.1073/PNAS.82.21.7439
Nucleotide sequence of a t(14;18) chromosomal breakpoint in follicular lymphoma and demonstration of a breakpoint-cluster region near a transcriptionally active locus on chromosome 18.
M. Cleary (1985)
10.1073/PNAS.94.8.3759
Bcl-x(L) can inhibit apoptosis in cells that have undergone Fas-induced protease activation.
L. Boise (1997)
10.1073/PNAS.93.10.4974
Cloning and expression of apoptosis inhibitory protein homologs that function to inhibit apoptosis and/or bind tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors.
A. Uren (1996)
10.1038/NG1195-294
Targeted mutation in the Fas gene causes hyperplasia in peripheral lymphoid organs and liver
M. Adachi (1995)
10.1182/BLOOD.V80.4.879.BLOODJOURNAL804879
Bcl-2 initiates a new category of oncogenes: regulators of cell death.
Sj Korsmeyer (1992)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8171319
Genetic control of programmed cell death in Drosophila.
K. White (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(92)90223-Y
Viral inhibition of inflammation: Cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1β converting enzyme
C. Ray (1992)
10.1128/MCB.11.8.4177
Identification of mRNAs associated with programmed cell death in immature thymocytes.
G. Owens (1991)
10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01341-5
Involvement of extracellular calcium in phosphatidylserine exposure during apoptosis
Mark B. Hampton (1996)
10.1016/1074-7613(95)90057-8
Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis.
S. Wiley (1995)
TheC. elegans cell death geneced-3encodes a protein P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
J Yuan (1993)
The 19kiloDalton adenovirus E 1 B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumornecrosisfactorα
E White (1992)
10.1111/j.1469-185X.1951.tb00774.x
CELL DEATHS IN NORMAL VERTEBRATE ONTOGENY
A. Glücksmann (1951)
10.1038/384638A0
NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death domain
B. Huang (1996)
10.1038/374733A0
Induction of apoptosis by the Bcl-2 homologue Bak
T. Chittenden (1995)
10.1083/JCB.135.2.479
Dissecting processing and apoptotic activity of a cysteine protease by mutant analysis
B. Allet (1996)
10.1006/EXCR.1996.0230
DNA fragmentation induced by protease activation in p53-null human leukemia HL60 cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin: cell-free system studies.
T. Shimizu (1996)
10.1074/JBC.271.9.4978
Active Site Amino Acids That Participate in the Catalytic Mechanism of Nucleoside 2′-Deoxyribosyltransferase (*)
S. Short (1996)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00760.x
Cathepsin D protease mediates programmed cell death induced by interferon‐gamma, Fas/APO‐1 and TNF‐alpha.
L. P. Deiss (1996)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90188-0
Checkpoints of dueling dimers foil death wishes
Z. Oltvai (1994)
10.1128/MCB.12.6.2570
The 19-kilodalton adenovirus E1B transforming protein inhibits programmed cell death and prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor alpha.
E. White (1992)
Inhibition of ceramide-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2.
S. J. Martin (1995)
Prevention of vertebrate neuronal death
V Gagliardini (1994)
The release of cytochromec from mitochondria: a primary site for bcl-2 regulation
RM Kluck (1997)
10.1038/377630A0
A role for CD95 ligand in preventing graft rejection
D. Bellgrau (1995)
10.1038/377348A0
Induction of apoptosis in mature T cells by tumour necrosis factor
Lixin Zheng (1995)
10.1083/JCB.137.2.469
Processing/Activation of At Least Four Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme–like Proteases Occurs during the Execution Phase of Apoptosis in Human Monocytic Tumor Cells
M. Macfarlane (1997)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90508-N
bcl-x, a bcl-2-related gene that functions as a dominant regulator of apoptotic cell death
L. Boise (1993)
10.1038/375081A0
Requirement of an ICE/CED-3 protease for Fas/APO-1-mediated apoptosis
M. Los (1995)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1994.tb06780.x
Divergent signalling via APO‐1/Fas and the TNF receptor, two homologous molecules involved in physiological cell death.
K. Schulze-Osthoff (1994)
10.1038/371346A0
Cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by a proteinase with properties like ICE
Y. Lazebnik (1994)
The cytotoxic T cell proteinase granzyme B does not activate interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme.
A. Darmon (1994)
10.1016/S0968-0004(00)89089-1
Post-translational modification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induced by DNA strand breaks.
T. Lindahl (1995)
10.1007/978-1-4899-6743-5_7
Naturally Occurring Neuronal Death in Vertebrates
V. Hamburger (1984)
The ability of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2 to prevent apoptosis can be differentially regulated.
A. Gottschalk (1996)
10.1038/sj.onc.1200919
Actin cleavage by CPP-32/apopain during the development of apoptosis
T. Mashima (1997)
10.1074/JBC.271.43.27099
The Ced-3/Interleukin 1β Converting Enzyme-like Homolog Mch6 and the Lamin-cleaving Enzyme Mch2α Are Substrates for the Apoptotic Mediator CPP32*
S. Srinivasula (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81005-3
A License to Kill
A. Fraser (1996)
10.1084/JEM.184.2.619
Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like protease cleaves DNA- dependent protein kinase in cytotoxic T cell killing
Q. Song (1996)
10.1101/GAD.9.14.1694
The head involution defective gene of Drosophila melanogaster functions in programmed cell death.
M. E. Grether (1995)
10.1038/284555A0
Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation
A. Wyllie (1980)
10.1091/MBC.8.2.325
Bax- and Bak-induced cell death in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
J. Jürgensmeier (1997)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb01089.x
Specific cleavage of the retinoblastoma protein by an ICE‐like protease in apoptosis.
R. Jänicke (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81382-3
Serine Phosphorylation of Death Agonist BAD in Response to Survival Factor Results in Binding to 14-3-3 Not BCL-XL
Jiping Zha (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.276.5309.111
The Receptor for the Cytotoxic Ligand TRAIL
G. Pan (1997)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7569933
Inhibition of ICE family proteases by baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35.
N. Bump (1995)
10.1074/jbc.272.11.7223
Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of Interleukin-1β-converting Enzyme and Related Caspases*
N. Margolin (1997)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80428-8
ICE family proteases: mediators of all apoptotic cell death?
P. Henkart (1996)
Suppression of signaling through transcription factor NFAT by interactions between calcineurin and bcl - 2
F Shibasaki (1997)
10.1083/JCB.126.4.827
Chromatin condensation during apoptosis is accompanied by degradation of lamin A+B, without enhanced activation of cdc2 kinase
F. Oberhammer (1994)
10.1038/370270A0
Structure and mechanism of interleukin-lβ converting enzyme
K. Wilson (1994)
10.1038/348334A0
Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death
D. Hockenbery (1990)
10.1074/JBC.270.25.15250
Identification and Characterization of ICH-2, a Novel Member of the Interleukin-1β-converting Enzyme Family of Cysteine Proteases (*)
J. Kamens (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90490-5
Mice deficient in IL-1β-converting enzyme are defective in production of mature IL-1β and resistant to endotoxic shock
P. Li (1995)
10.1074/JBC.271.13.7440
Proapoptotic Protein Bax Heterodimerizes with Bcl-2 and Homodimerizes with Bax via a Novel Domain (BH3) Distinct from BH1 and BH2 (*)
H. Zha (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.28.16443
The CED-3/ICE-like Protease Mch2 Is Activated during Apoptosis and Cleaves the Death Substrate Lamin A*
K. Orth (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.34.20580
Identification and Characterization of Ich-3, a Member of the Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme (ICE)/Ced-3 Family and an Upstream Regulator of ICE*
S. Wang (1996)
10.1086/397929
Drawings of British Plants, Being Illustrations of the Species of Flowering Plants Growing Naturally in the British Isles. Parts I-III: Ranunculaceae to Cruciferae.Stella Ross-Craig
H. M. Raup (1951)
10.1083/JCB.136.1.215
Inhibition of Ced-3/ICE-related Proteases Does Not Prevent Cell Death Induced by Oncogenes, DNA Damage, or the Bcl-2 Homologue Bak
N. McCarthy (1997)
10.1074/JBC.271.22.12687
Induction of Apoptosis by Apo-2 Ligand, a New Member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Cytokine Family*
R. Pitti (1996)
10.1074/JBC.271.9.4961
FADD/MORT1 Is a Common Mediator of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-induced Apoptosis (*)
A. Chinnaiyan (1996)
10.1074/JBC.270.32.18715
Cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase by Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme and Its Homologs TX and Nedd-2 (*)
Y. Gu (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(92)90359-K
Cytotoxicity with target DNA breakdown by rat basophilic leukemia cells expressing both cytolysin and granzyme A
J. Shiver (1992)
10.1074/JBC.271.19.11209
D4-GDI, a Substrate of CPP32, Is Proteolyzed during Fas-induced Apoptosis (*)
S. Na (1996)
10.1038/374131A0
Principles of CDK regulation
D. Morgan (1995)
10.1074/JBC.270.19.11238
Identification of a decay in transcription potential that results in elongation factor dependence of RNA polymerase II
W. Gu (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90518-5
Apoptosis in cancer therapy: Crossing the threshold
D. Fisher (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90486-A
Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by IL-1β-converting enzyme, a mammalian homolog of the C. elegans cell death gene ced-3
M. Miura (1993)
10.1074/jbc.271.48.30781
Nuclear Transport of Granzyme B (Fragmentin-2)
D. Jans (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.275.5303.1129
Prevention of Apoptosis by Bcl-2: Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria Blocked
J. Yang (1997)
10.1126/SCIENCE.275.5303.1126
Interaction and Regulation of Subcellular Localization of CED-4 by CED-9
D. Wu (1997)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81334-3
Human ICE/CED-3 Protease Nomenclature
E. Alnemri (1996)
10.1074/JBC.271.22.13273
Activation of the Native 45-kDa Precursor Form of Interleukin-1-converting Enzyme*
T. Yamin (1996)
10.1074/JBC.272.33.20317
Caspase-3-mediated Cleavage of Protein Kinase C θ in Induction of Apoptosis*
R. Datta (1997)
10.1074/jbc.271.28.16720
ICE-LAP6, a Novel Member of the ICE/Ced-3 Gene Family, Is Activated by the Cytotoxic T Cell Protease Granzyme B*
H. Duan (1996)
10.1016/0003-9861(90)90261-V
Rapid turnover of endogenous endonuclease activity in thymocytes: effects of inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis.
D. McConkey (1990)
, an -related gene, encodes both positive and negative regulators of programmed cell death
Lianrong Wang (1994)
10.1073/PNAS.93.11.5325
Bcl-2 interrupts the ceramide-mediated pathway of cell death.
J. Zhang (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.5.2376
Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 Protein and Association with p21Ras in Ras-induced Apoptosis (*)
C. Y. Chen (1996)
10.1016/S0960-9822(02)70791-4
Apo-3, a new member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, contains a death domain and activates apoptosis and NF-κB
S. Marsters (1996)
10.1128/MCB.14.4.2556
Bcl-2 blocks p53-dependent apoptosis.
S. Chiou (1994)
Proteolytic activation of protein kinase C δ by an ICE-like protease in apoptotic cells.EMBO J.14:6148–56
Y Emoto (1995)
10.1074/JBC.272.15.9613
Degradation of Retinoblastoma Protein in Tumor Necrosis Factor- and CD95-induced Cell Death*
X. Tan (1997)
10.1038/386728A0
Suppression of signalling through transcription factor NF-AT by interactions between calcineurin and Bcl-2
F. Shibasaki (1997)
10.1083/JCB.133.5.1041
Role of Ced-3/ICE-family proteases in staurosporine-induced programmed cell death
M. Jacobsen (1996)
10.1038/381335A0
X-ray and NMR structure of human Bcl-xL, an inhibitor of programmed cell death
S. Muchmore (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.275.5303.1132
The Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria: A Primary Site for Bcl-2 Regulation of Apoptosis
R. Kluck (1997)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90540-1
G1 phase progression: Cycling on cue
C. Sherr (1994)
10.1038/367281A0
Apoptotic signals delivered through the T-cell receptor of a T-cell hybrid require the immediate–early gene nur77
Z. Liu (1994)
10.1038/375431A0
Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K
S. Farrow (1995)
10.1146/ANNUREV.IY.09.040191.001331
Lpr and gld: single gene models of systemic autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease.
P. Cohen (1991)
10.1016/S0968-0004(96)30022-4
TRAF proteins and meprins share a conserved domain.
A. Uren (1996)
10.1016/S0074-7696(08)62312-8
Cell death: the significance of apoptosis.
A. Wyllie (1980)
10.1016/0012-1606(77)90158-0
Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.
J. Sulston (1977)
10.1074/jbc.271.15.8521
A Peptide Sequence from Bax That Converts Bcl-2 into an Activator of Apoptosis (*)
J. J. Hunter (1996)
Inhibitors of proteases prevent endonucleolysis accompanying apoptotic death of HL-60 leukemic cells and normal thymocytes.
S. Bruno (1992)
10.1038/40657
Inhibition of death receptor signals by cellular FLIP
M. Irmler (1997)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80092-6
An Alternatively Spliced C. elegans ced-4 RNA Encodes a Novel Cell Death Inhibitor
S. Shaham (1996)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00935.x
Pivotal role of a DEVD‐sensitive step in etoposide‐induced and Fas‐mediated apoptotic pathways.
L. Dubrez (1996)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90013-6
Dominant interfering fas gene mutations impair apoptosis in a human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
G. H. Fisher (1995)
10.1126/SCIENCE.8303301
Prevention of vertebrate neuronal death by the crmA gene.
V. Gagliardini (1994)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1994.tb06630.x
c‐Myc‐induced apoptosis in fibroblasts is inhibited by specific cytokines.
E. A. Harrington (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(90)90816-W
Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor
T. Schall (1990)
10.1038/379349A0
Suppression of apoptosis in mammalian cells by NAIP and a related family of IAP genes
Peter Listen (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1470921
Prevention of programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans by human bcl-2.
D. Vaux (1992)
Cloning of a novel tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducible primary response gene that is differentially expressed in development and capillary tube-like formation in vitro.
V. Sarma (1992)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80501-2
Apaf-1, a Human Protein Homologous to C. elegans CED-4, Participates in Cytochrome c–Dependent Activation of Caspase-3
H. Zou (1997)
10.1074/jbc.271.51.32487
CrmA/SPI-2 Inhibition of an Endogenous ICE-related Protease Responsible for Lamin A Cleavage and Apoptotic Nuclear Fragmentation*
A. Takahashi (1996)
ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
DM Hockenbery (1993)
CAR1, a TNFR-related protein, is a cellular P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
J Brojatsch (1996)
Cloning of abcl-2homologue by interaction with adenovirus
SN Farrow (1995)
10.1073/PNAS.93.20.11002
Activation of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme-dependent apoptosis pathway by granzyme B.
L. Shi (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.93.11.5635
The contrasting roles of ICE family proteases and interleukin-1beta in apoptosis induced by trophic factor withdrawal and by copper/zinc superoxide dismutase down-regulation.
C. Troy (1996)
10.1038/383166A0
Induction of cell death by endogenous nerve growth factor through its p75 receptor
J. M. Frade (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.93.24.13973
The tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 signal transducers TRAF2 and c-IAP1 are components of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling complex.
H. Shu (1996)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1994.tb06459.x
Programmed cell death and Bcl‐2 protection in the absence of a nucleus.
M. D. Jacobson (1994)
10.1038/369321A0
BH1 and BH2 domains of Bcl-2 are required for inhibition of apoptosis and heterodimerization with Bax
X. Yin (1994)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1411528
Prevention of programmed cell death of sympathetic neurons by the bcl-2 proto-oncogene.
I. García (1992)
10.1016/0092-8674(91)90362-3
bcl-2 transgene inhibits T cell death and perturbs thymic self-censorship
A. Strasser (1991)
10.1038/327031A0
Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2
M. Lee (1987)
10.1074/jbc.271.23.13392
The Distal Pathway of Lipoprotein-induced Cholesterol Esterification, but Not Sphingomyelinase-induced Cholesterol Esterification, Is Energy-dependent*
P. J. Skiba (1996)
Post-embryonic cell lineages
J. Sulston (1977)
10.1016/0962-8924(93)90011-O
Cellular substrates of p34cdc2 and its companion cyclin-dependent kinases
E. Nigg (1993)
10.1074/jbc.271.28.16850
Fas-induced Activation of the Cell Death-related Protease CPP32 Is Inhibited by Bcl-2 and by ICE Family Protease Inhibitors*
R. Armstrong (1996)
10.1038/bjc.1972.33
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
J. Kerr (1972)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90480-E
Cell-mediated cytotoxicity
P. Doherty (1993)
The ICE family of cysteine proteases as effectors of cell death.
S. Kumar (1996)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90485-9
The C. elegans cell death gene ced-3 encodes a protein similar to mammalian interleukin-1β-converting enzyme
J. Yuan (1993)
10.1074/jbc.271.6.3229
Signal Transduction Pathways Regulated by Mitogen-activated/Extracellular Response Kinase Kinase Kinase Induce Cell Death (*)
N. L. Johnson (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.94.4.1172
Death effector domain-containing herpesvirus and poxvirus proteins inhibit both Fas- and TNFR1-induced apoptosis.
J. Bertin (1997)
10.1038/380723A0
Sequential activation of ICE-like and CPP32-like proteases during Fas-mediated apoptosis
M. Enari (1996)
10.1038/384368A0
Decreased apoptosis in the brain and premature lethality in CPP32-deficient mice
K. Kuida (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.93.25.14486
Molecular ordering of the Fas-apoptotic pathway: the Fas/APO-1 protease Mch5 is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that activates multiple Ced-3/ICE-like cysteine proteases.
S. Srinivasula (1996)
10.1038/362847A0
p53 is required for radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes
S. Lowe (1993)
10.1038/367277A0
Requirement for the orphan steroid receptor Nur77 in apoptosis of T-cell hybridomas
J. Woronicz (1994)
10.1073/PNAS.93.14.7063
Bcl-2 interacting protein, BAG-1, binds to and activates the kinase Raf-1.
H. Wang (1996)
10.1038/374736A0
Modulation of apoptosis by the widely distributed Bcl-2 homologue Bak
M. Kiefer (1995)
10.1074/JBC.270.28.16526
The Baculovirus p35 Protein Inhibits Fas- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Apoptosis (*)
D. R. Beidler (1995)
10.1083/JCB.131.3.735
Calcineurin functions in Ca(2+)-activated cell death in mammalian cells
F. Shibasaki (1995)
10.1073/PNAS.93.25.14559
BAX-induced cell death may not require interleukin 1 beta-converting enzyme-like proteases.
J. Xiang (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.275.5303.1122
Interaction of CED-4 with CED-3 and CED-9: A Molecular Framework for Cell Death
A. Chinnaiyan (1997)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb00305.x
Proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta by an ICE‐like protease in apoptotic cells.
Y. Emoto (1995)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80085-9
Induction of Apoptotic Program in Cell-Free Extracts: Requirement for dATP and Cytochrome c
X. Liu (1996)
10.1126/SCIENCE.276.5318.1571
Membrane and morphological changes in apoptotic cells regulated by caspase-mediated activation of PAK2.
T. Rudel (1997)
10.1038/386517A0
Viral FLICE-inhibitory proteins (FLIPs) prevent apoptosis induced by death receptors
M. Thome (1997)
10.1126/science.271.5250.808
Requirement of an ICE-Like Protease for Induction of Apoptosis and Ceramide Generation by REAPER
G. Pronk (1996)
10.1128/MCB.13.11.7000
Neither macromolecular synthesis nor myc is required for cell death via the mechanism that can be controlled by Bcl-2.
D. Vaux (1993)
10.1074/jbc.272.10.6578
Fas-associated Death Domain Protein Interleukin-1β-converting Enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE/Ced-3 Homologue, Is Proximally Involved in CD95- and p55-mediated Death Signaling*
Claudius Vincenz (1997)
The cell cycle related differences in susceptibility of HL-60 cells to apoptosis induced by various antitumor agents.
W. Gorczyca (1993)
10.1016/0962-8924(96)20025-X
ICE/CED-3 proteasesin apoptosis.
M. Whyte (1996)
Bcl - xl can inhibit apoptosis in cells that have undergone Fasinduced protease activation
LH Boise (1997)
Multiple agents rescue PC12 cells from serum-free cell death by transla P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
A Rukenstein (1991)
10.1038/42867
Double identity for proteins of the Bcl-2 family
John Calvin Reed (1997)
10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00120-5
CED-4 induces chromatin condensation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is inhibited by direct physical association with CED-9
C. James (1997)
10.1128/MCB.14.6.4183
Apoptosis in erythroid progenitors deprived of erythropoietin occurs during the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle without growth arrest or stabilization of wild-type p53.
L. Kelley (1994)
Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1 β converting enzyme.Science267:2000–3
K Kuida (1995)
10.1016/0896-6273(95)90042-X
Peptide inhibitors of the ice protease family arrest programmed cell death of motoneurons in vivo and in vitro
C. Milligan (1995)
Anti-apoptotic genes of baculoviruses.Cell Death Differ.3:9–16
RJ Clem (1996)
10.1074/jbc.271.46.28753
Phosphatidylserine Externalization during CD95-induced Apoptosis of Cells and Cytoplasts Requires ICE/CED-3 Protease Activity*
S. J. Martin (1996)
10.1073/PNAS.93.18.9545
Cross talk between cell death and cell cycle progression: BCL-2 regulates NFAT-mediated activation.
G. Linette (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81265-9
Involvement of MACH, a Novel MORT1/FADD-Interacting Protease, in Fas/APO-1- and TNF Receptor–Induced Cell Death
M. Boldin (1996)
10.1074/JBC.272.18.11694
Cleavage of PITSLRE Kinases by ICE/CASP-1 and CPP32/CASP-3 during Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor*
R. Beyaert (1997)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80197-X
DFF, a Heterodimeric Protein That Functions Downstream of Caspase-3 to Trigger DNA Fragmentation during Apoptosis
X. Liu (1997)
10.1101/GAD.9.10.1149
Inhibitors of mammalian G1 cyclin-dependent kinases.
C. Sherr (1995)
10.1074/JBC.270.12.6425
Proteolysis of Fodrin (Non-erythroid Spectrin) during Apoptosis (*)
S. J. Martin (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90376-X
Cytotoxic lymphocytes require granzyme B for the rapid induction of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in allogeneic target cells
J. W. Heusel (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(92)90123-T
Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by c-myc protein
G. Evan (1992)
10.1083/JCB.122.3.523
Internucleosomal DNA cleavage and neuronal cell survival/death
A. Batistatou (1993)
10.1126/SCIENCE.3929382
The t(14;18) chromosome translocations involved in B-cell neoplasms result from mistakes in VDJ joining.
Y. Tsujimoto (1985)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90203-8
Cell-free apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts: Inhibition by Bcl-2 and requirement for an organelle fraction enriched in mitochondria
D. D. Newmeyer (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)80066-N
Bcl-2 functions in an antioxidant pathway to prevent apoptosis
D. Hockenbery (1993)
10.1083/JCB.123.1.7
Nuclear events of apoptosis in vitro in cell-free mitotic extracts: a model system for analysis of the active phase of apoptosis
Y. Lazebnik (1993)
10.1073/PNAS.92.17.7834
Multiple Bcl-2 family members demonstrate selective dimerizations with Bax.
T. Sedlak (1995)
10.1038/377248A0
Inhibition of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell-death protease CED-3 by a CED-3 cleavage site in baculovirus p35 protein
D. Xue (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90068-3
Contenders in FasL/TNF death signaling
J. Cleveland (1995)
10.1074/JBC.270.9.4312
Cloning and Expression of Four Novel Isoforms of Human Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme with Different Apoptotic Activities (*)
E. Alnemri (1995)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80244-7
TRAMP, a novel apoptosis-mediating receptor with sequence homology to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and Fas(Apo-1/CD95).
J. L. Bodmer (1997)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb00204.x
Apoptosis by a cytosolic extract from Fas‐activated cells.
M. Enari (1995)
CrmA-inhibitable cleavage of the P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
M Tewari (1995)
Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in the thymus.
Cohen Jj (1992)
10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00478-5
Metabolism and evolution of Haemophilus influenzae deduced from a whole-genome comparison with Escherichia coli
R. Tatusov (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(85)80070-2
Cloning the chromosomal breakpoint of t(14;18) human lymphomas: clustering around Jh on chromosome 14 and near a transcriptional unit on 18
A. Bakhshi (1985)
10.1074/jbc.272.32.19641
CASH, a Novel Caspase Homologue with Death Effector Domains*
Y. Goltsev (1997)
10.1038/385086A0
RAIDD is a new 'death' adaptor molecule
H. Duan (1997)
10.1084/JEM.184.6.2399
Proteolytic Activation of Protein Kinase C δ by an ICE/CED 3-like Protease Induces Characteristics of Apoptosis
T. Ghayur (1996)
10.1038/384372A0
A death-domain-containing receptor that mediates apoptosis
J. Kitson (1996)
10.1021/BI00886A039
Evidence for an Active-Center Histidine in Trypsin through Use of a Specific Reagent, 1-Chloro-3-tosylamido-7-amino-2-heptanone, the Chloromethyl Ketone Derived from Nα-Tosyl-L-lysine*
E. Shaw (1965)
10.1126/science.274.5289.990
Signal Transduction by DR3, a Death Domain-Containing Receptor Related to TNFR-1 and CD95
A. Chinnaiyan (1996)
10.1126/science.154.3749.604
Death in Embryonic Systems
J. W. Saunders (1966)
10.1096/fasebj.6.7.1563596
Apoptosis: a different type of cell death
L. Gerschenson (1992)
10.1128/MCB.15.1.1
PITSLRE protein kinase activity is associated with apoptosis.
J. M. Lahti (1995)
10.1016/0014-5793(95)00931-X
The death domain motif found in Fas (Apo‐1) and TNF receptor is present in proteins involved in apoptosis and axonal guidance
K. Hofmann (1995)
10.1128/MCB.13.4.2432
Myc-mediated apoptosis is blocked by ectopic expression of Bcl-2.
A. Wagner (1993)
10.1074/jbc.271.49.31277
Specific Cleavage of α-Fodrin during Fas- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Apoptosis Is Mediated by an Interleukin-1β-converting Enzyme/Ced-3 Protease Distinct from the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Protease*
V. Cryns (1996)
Bax- and bak-induced cell death in the fission yeast Schizosaccha P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
JM Jurgensmeier (1997)
Mice deficient in IL-1β-converting enzyme are defective in production of mature IL-1 β and resis P1: ARK/dat P2: ARK/vks QC: ARK/TKJ T1
P Li (1995)
Induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in human leukemic HL-60 cells by inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis.
S. Martin (1990)
10.1038/335440A0
Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells
D. Vaux (1988)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1962198
Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells.
R. Clem (1991)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90070-5
The TNF receptor 1-associated protein TRADD signals cell death and NF-κB activation
H. Hsu (1995)
10.1038/373444A0
Fas(CD95)/FasL interactions required for programmed cell death after T-cell activation
S. Ju (1995)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7535475
Altered cytokine export and apoptosis in mice deficient in interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme.
K. Kuida (1995)
10.1074/JBC.270.30.18044
Purification of an Interleukin-1 Converting Enzyme-related Cysteine Protease That Cleaves Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Proteins between the Leucine Zipper and Transmembrane Domains (*)
X. Wang (1995)
10.1074/JBC.272.15.9621
A Novel Family of Viral Death Effector Domain-containing Molecules That Inhibit Both CD-95- and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1-induced Apoptosis*
S. Hu (1997)
10.1083/JCB.127.1.15
Cell nucleus and DNA fragmentation are not required for apoptosis
K. Schulze-Osthoff (1994)
10.1093/INTIMM/4.7.821
Bcl-2 prevents death of factor-deprived cells but fails to prevent apoptosis in targets of cell mediated killing.
D. Vaux (1992)
10.1016/0092-8674(90)90463-O
Substrates for p34cdc2: In vivo veritas?
S. Moreno (1990)
10.1038/356494A0
Caenorhabditis elegans gene ced-9 protects cells from programmed cell death
M. Hengartner (1992)
10.1038/359552A0
Apoptotic cell death induced by c-myc is inhibited by bcl-2
R. Bissonnette (1992)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00629.x
A conserved family of cellular genes related to the baculovirus iap gene and encoding apoptosis inhibitors.
C. Duckett (1996)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80339-6
The Regulation of Anoikis: MEKK-1 Activation Requires Cleavage by Caspases
M. Cardone (1997)
10.1074/JBC.272.14.8841
Bik and Bak Induce Apoptosis Downstream of CrmA but Upstream of Inhibitor of Apoptosis*
K. Orth (1997)
10.1006/DBIO.1996.0296
Activation of the reaper gene during ectopic cell killing in Drosophila.
W. Nordstrom (1996)
10.1038/377446A0
Activation of the apoptotic protease CPP32 by cytotoxic T-cell-derived granzyme B
A. Darmon (1995)
10.1084/JEM.181.5.1905
The target cell nucleus is not required for cell-mediated granzyme- or Fas-based cytotoxicity
H. Nakajima (1995)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90071-3
FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of fas and initiates apoptosis
A. Chinnaiyan (1995)
10.1083/JCB.124.1.1
Bcl-2 and the regulation of programmed cell death
J. C. Reed (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)90509-O
Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programed cell death
Zoltán N. Oltval (1993)
CPP32, a novel human apoptotic protein with homology to Caenorhabditis elegans cell death protein Ced-3 and mammalian interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme.
T. Fernandes-Alnemri (1994)
TNF-induced intracellular signaling leading to gene induction or to cytotoxicity by necrosis or by apoptosis.
W. Fiers (1995)
Activation of apoptosis pathways by granzyme B.
A. Greenberg (1996)
10.1126/science.7531366
Suppression of ICE and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells by extracellular matrix
N. Boudreau (1995)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.11-08-02552.1991
Multiple agents rescue PC12 cells from serum-free cell death by translation- and transcription-independent mechanisms
A. Rukenstein (1991)
10.1126/science.270.5239.1189
Fas Ligand-Induced Apoptosis as a Mechanism of Immune Privilege
T. Griffith (1995)
Mch2, a new member of the apoptotic Ced-3/Ice cysteine protease gene family.
T. Fernandes-Alnemri (1995)
Specific peptide inhibitors of the ICE/CPP32-like proteases block apoptosis.Neuron15:385–93
CE Milligan (1995)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/S0168-3659(01)00220-6
Preliminary evaluation of caspases-dependent apoptosis signaling pathways of free and HPMA copolymer-bound doxorubicin in human ovarian carcinoma cells.
T. Minko (2001)
10.1016/J.BBRC.2003.07.004
Role of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by cyclosporin A in a human hepatoma cell line.
J. Kim (2003)
Mecanismos implicados en la protección de la apoptosis neuronal en células granulares de cerebelo por litio y valproato
A. M. Corral (2013)
10.1124/jpet.112.198341
Na+,K+-ATPase Functionally Interacts with the Plasma Membrane Na+,Ca2+ Exchanger to Prevent Ca2+ Overload and Neuronal Apoptosis in Excitotoxic Stress
D. A. Sibarov (2012)
10.1002/jnr.10312
Neurons overexpressing mutant presenilin‐1 are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum‐Golgi stress
F. Terro (2002)
Cellular and mechanical interactions in vivo in response to exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage
P. Hamer (2003)
10.1038/labinvest.3780039
Enhanced Expression of Caspase-3 in Hypertrophic Scars and Keloid: Induction of Caspase-3 and Apoptosis in Keloid Fibroblasts In Vitro
Y. Akasaka (2000)
10.1046/j.1460-9568.2000.00189.x
Blockade of the NMDA receptor increases developmental apoptotic elimination of granule neurons and activates caspases in the rat cerebellum
B. Monti (2000)
10.1002/jcp.20131
Type V collagen regulates the expression of apoptotic and stress response genes by breast cancer cells
C. Luparello (2005)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BIOCHEM.68.1.383
Mammalian caspases: structure, activation, substrates, and functions during apoptosis.
W. Earnshaw (1999)
10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00139-7
Crucial role of apopain in the peroxynitrite-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation.
L. Virág (1998)
10.1016/S1567-5769(03)00200-5
Reduced birth defects caused by maternal immune stimulation may involve increased expression of growth promoting genes and cytokine GM-CSF in the spleen of diabetic ICR mice.
K. Punareewattana (2003)
Influence of caspase-binding ability of the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) on serine protease inhibitor-sensitive apoptosis
Michael Walliser (2005)
10.1128/MCB.23.8.2981-2990.2003
ASAP, a Novel Protein Complex Involved in RNA Processing and Apoptosis
C. Schwerk (2003)
The antitumor activities of flavonoids.
C. Kandaswami (2005)
10.1385/1-59259-851-X:207
Proapoptotic Gene Silencing Via Methylation in Human Tumors
T. Tekautz (2005)
10.1016/J.CBI.2007.08.010
In vitro cytotoxic potential of Polyalthia longifolia on human cancer cell lines and induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in HL-60 cells.
M. Verma (2008)
10.1673/031.010.4301
Synchronized Expression of Two Caspase Family Genes, ice-2 and ice-5, in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cells of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Y. Sun (2010)
10.1152/ajpcell.1999.277.2.C310
Antagonism of CD95 signaling blocks butyrate induction of apoptosis in young adult mouse colonic cells.
Y. Fan (1999)
10.1074/jbc.274.42.29921
Oligodendrocyte Programmed Cell Death and Central Myelination Deficiency Induced in Transgenic Mice by Synergism between c-Myc and Oct-6*
N. A. Jensen (1999)
10.1046/j.1537-2995.2003.00349.x
Apoptotic activity in stored human platelets
P. Perrotta (2003)
10.1182/BLOOD.V94.10.3583.422K31_3583_3592
Liposomal ET-18-OCH(3) induces cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of CD95 (APO-1/Fas) signaling.
O. Cuvillier (1999)
10.3390/molecules15063878
Anti-Proliferative Effect of Camellianin A in Adinandra nitida Leaves and Its Apoptotic Induction in Human Hep G2 and MCF-7 Cells
H. Gao (2010)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4400610
Physiological apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues: involvement of caspases
A. Marti (1999)
10.1078/S0171-9335(04)70040-0
Nuclear localization of procaspase-9 and processing by a caspase-3-like activity in mammary epithelial cells.
P. Ritter (2000)
10.1016/S0165-0270(99)00193-4
Comparison of the LDH and MTT assays for quantifying cell death: validity for neuronal apoptosis?
D. Lobner (2000)
Apoptotic response of HL-60 human leukemia cells to the antitumor drug TAS-103.
J. Kluza (2000)
Invasion intracellulaire des cellules non-phagocytaires par Staphylococcus aureus
D. Boulanger (2006)
Cisplatin-induced Apoptosis of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Caspase-3 Is Essential for Procaspase-9 Processing and Updated
C. Blanc (2000)
10.3892/etm.2013.1450
Abstract. Kuding tea (Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng) is drunk widely in China. The in vitro anticancer effects of Kuding tea were evaluated in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5 -diphenyltetrazolium
Kai Zhu (2014)
10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.5731-12.1
Early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: emphasis on cellular apoptosis.
S. Yuksel (2012)
10.4067/S0034-98872009001200013
Recent advances in the pathogenesis of diabetic embryopathy
G. DamarysGarcía (2009)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar