Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Quantitative MR Imaging Of Brain Iron: A Postmortem Validation Study.

C. Langkammer, N. Krebs, W. Goessler, E. Scheurer, F. Ebner, K. Yen, F. Fazekas, S. Ropele
Published 2010 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
PURPOSE To investigate the relationship between transverse relaxation rates R2 and R2*, the most frequently used surrogate markers for iron in brain tissue, and chemically determined iron concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from each individual's next of kin. Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed at 3.0 T in seven human postmortem brains in situ (age range at death, 38-81 years). Following brain extraction, iron concentrations were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in prespecified gray and white matter regions and correlated with R2 and R2* by using linear regression analysis. Hemispheric differences were tested with paired t tests. RESULTS The highest iron concentrations were found in the globus pallidus (mean ± standard deviation, 205 mg/kg wet mass ± 32), followed by the putamen (mean, 153 mg/kg wet mass ± 29), caudate nucleus (mean, 92 mg/kg wet mass ± 15), thalamus (mean, 49 mg/kg wet mass ± 11), and white matter regions. When all tissue samples were considered, transverse relaxation rates showed a strong linear correlation with iron concentration throughout the brain (r² = 0.67 for R2, r² = 0.90 for R2*; P < .001). In white matter structures, only R2* showed a linear correlation with iron concentration. Chemical analysis revealed significantly higher iron concentrations in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere, a finding that was not reflected in the relaxation rates. CONCLUSION Because of their strong linear correlation with iron concentration, both R2 and R2* can be used to measure iron deposition in the brain. Because R2* is more sensitive than R2 to variations in brain iron concentration and can detect differences in white matter, it is the preferred parameter for the assessment of iron concentration in vivo.
This paper references
10.1002/mds.21227
Assessment of brain iron and neuronal integrity in patients with Parkinson's disease using novel MRI contrasts
S. Michaeli (2007)
10.1016/S0730-725X(99)00017-X
The correlation between phase shifts in gradient-echo MR images and regional brain iron concentration.
R. Ogg (1999)
10.1097/01.rmr.0000245455.59912.40
High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Iron in Alzheimer Disease
J. Schenck (2006)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.1992.00530310053012
Biological significance of iron-related magnetic resonance imaging changes in the brain.
J. Pujol (1992)
10.1002/mrm.21118
Correlation of proton transverse relaxation rates (R2) with iron concentrations in postmortem brain tissue from alzheimer's disease patients
M. House (2007)
10.1002/NBM.722
High‐resolution BOLD venographic imaging: a window into brain function
J. Reichenbach (2001)
10.1002/mrm.20907
Magnetic field correlation imaging
J. H. Jensen (2006)
10.3233/JAD-2009-1010
Iron toxicity in diseases of aging: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and atherosclerosis.
Sandro Altamura (2009)
10.1111/J.1753-4887.1995.TB05480.X
Overview and mechanisms of iron regulation.
T. Bothwell (1995)
10.1159/000147312
Histochemical distribution of non-haem iron in the human brain.
C. Morris (1992)
10.1002/mrm.1171
Quantitative model for the interecho time dependence of the CPMG relaxation rate in iron‐rich gray matter
J. H. Jensen (2001)
10.1016/j.nurt.2007.05.006
Iron in chronic brain disorders: Imaging and neurotherapeutic implications
J. Stankiewicz (2011)
10.1042/bj3570241
Ferritin and the response to oxidative stress.
K. Orino (2001)
10.1002/MRM.1910310614
In vivo visualization of myelin water in brain by magnetic resonance
A. MacKay (1994)
10.1177/1352458509106609
Quantitative assessment of brain iron by R2* relaxometry in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis
M. Khalil (2009)
10.1016/J.MRI.2004.10.001
Imaging iron stores in the brain using magnetic resonance imaging.
E. Haacke (2005)
10.1002/mrm.21909
Postmortem MRI of human brain hemispheres: T2 relaxation times during formaldehyde fixation
R. Dawe (2009)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb49617.x
Health and Physiological Effects of Human Exposure to Whole‐Body Four‐Tesla Magnetic Fields during MRI
J. Schenck (1992)
10.1016/S0925-4927(97)00052-8
MRI T2 relaxation times of brain regions in schizophrenic patients and control subjects
T. Supprian (1997)
10.1111/j.1471-4159.1958.tb12607.x
THE EFFECT OF AGE ON THE NON‐HAEMIN IRON IN THE HUMAN BRAIN
B. Hallgren (1958)
10.2214/AJR.147.1.103
MRI of brain iron.
B. Drayer (1986)
10.1002/MRM.1910320610
Theory of NMR signal behavior in magnetically inhomogeneous tissues: The static dephasing regime
D. Yablonskiy (1994)
10.1196/annals.1306.019
Brain Ferritin Iron as a Risk Factor for Age at Onset in Neurodegenerative Diseases
G. Bartzokis (2004)
10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(200002)43:2<226::AID-MRM9>3.0.CO;2-P
Strong field behavior of the NMR signal from magnetically heterogeneous tissues
J. H. Jensen (2000)
10.1002/mrm.22156
Characterization of T2* heterogeneity in human brain white matter
T. Li (2009)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.11.017
Age, gender, and hemispheric differences in iron deposition in the human brain: An in vivo MRI study
X. Xu (2008)
10.1002/MRM.1910400310
Diffusional anisotropy of T2 components in bovine optic nerve
G. Stanisz (1998)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.210.3.R99FE41759
MR imaging of human brain at 3.0 T: preliminary report on transverse relaxation rates and relation to estimated iron content.
N. Gelman (1999)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.054
Postmortem interval alters the water relaxation and diffusion properties of rat nervous tissue — Implications for MRI studies of human autopsy samples
T. Shepherd (2009)
10.1002/mrm.21744
Myocardial T  2* measurements in iron‐overloaded thalassemia: An in vivo study to investigate optimal methods of quantification
T. He (2008)
10.1002/mrm.21980
Direct saturation MRI: Theory and application to imaging brain iron
Seth A. Smith (2009)
10.1002/MRM.1910290406
Field dependent transverse relaxation rate increase may be a specific measure of tissue iron stores
G. Bartzokis (1993)
10.1002/NBM.683
Magnetization transfer in MRI: a review
R. Henkelman (2001)
10.1002/NBM.922
High‐field magnetic resonance imaging of brain iron: birth of a biomarker?
J. Schenck (2004)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.159.2.3961182
Parkinson plus syndrome: diagnosis using high field MR imaging of brain iron.
B. Drayer (1986)
10.1056/NEJM199912233412607
Disorders of iron metabolism.
N. Andrews (1999)
10.1097/01.rmr.0000245461.90406.ad
Role of Iron in Neurodegenerative Disorders
D. Berg (2006)
10.1118/1.595535
A review of normal tissue hydrogen NMR relaxation times and relaxation mechanisms from 1-100 MHz: dependence on tissue type, NMR frequency, temperature, species, excision, and age.
P. Bottomley (1984)
10.1103/PHYSREV.104.563
Bloch Equations with Diffusion Terms
H. C. Torrey (1956)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.055
Toward in vivo histology: A comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) with magnitude-, phase-, and R2⁎-imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strength
A. Deistung (2013)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.06.007
The influence of brain iron and myelin on magnetic susceptibility and effective transverse relaxation - A biochemical and histological validation study
S. Hametner (2018)
Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Huntington’s Disease
Ricardo Nuno Vieira Leitão (2018)
10.1111/cns.13395
Perihematomal brain tissue iron concentration measurement by MRI in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage
Jia-liang Wei (2020)
Iron-induced relaxation mechanisms in the human substantia nigra: Towards quantifying iron load in dopaminergic neurons
Malte Brammerloh (2018)
10.1039/c3mt00378g
Oxidative damage to rat brain in iron and copper overloads.
Rosario Musacco-Sebio (2014)
10.1002/nbm.3658
Synthetic quantitative MRI through relaxometry modelling
M. Callaghan (2016)
10.1016/j.neulet.2013.07.003
Possible effects of iron deposition on the measurement of DTI metrics in deep gray matter nuclei: An in vitro and in vivo study
Jiuquan Zhang (2013)
Imaging fibres in the brain
D. H. Kleinnijenhuis (2014)
10.1007/s00330-012-2494-2
Identification of mineral deposits in the brain on radiological images: a systematic review
Maria C. Valdés Hernández (2012)
10.1016/j.mri.2015.09.002
Value of transverse relaxometry difference methods for iron in human brain.
Md Nasir Uddin (2016)
10.1016/j.tins.2019.03.009
Iron, Myelin, and the Brain: Neuroimaging Meets Neurobiology
H. Möller (2019)
10.1002/mrm.27214
Controlling motion artefact levels in MR images by suspending data acquisition during periods of head motion
Rémi Castella (2018)
10.3389/fnins.2014.00278
Estimating the apparent transverse relaxation time (R2*) from images with different contrasts (ESTATICS) reduces motion artifacts
N. Weiskopf (2014)
10.1371/journal.pone.0035397
Serum Cholesterol and Nigrostriatal R2* Values in Parkinson's Disease
G. Du (2012)
10.3389/fnhum.2013.00710
High-Resolution MR Imaging of the Human Brainstem In vivo at 7 Tesla
A. Deistung (2013)
10.1007/s00115-017-0373-4
Computationale Neuroanatomie und Mikrostrukturbildgebung mit der Magnetresonanztomographie
S. Mohammadi (2017)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.06.016
Automated segmentation of midbrain structures with high iron content
B. Garzón (2018)
10.1007/s00415-015-7832-2
Voxel-based analysis in neuroferritinopathy expands the phenotype and determines radiological correlates of disease severity
M. Keogh (2015)
10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.09.013
R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging
Christine Ghadery (2015)
10.1093/sleep/zsz171
Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging reveals alterations of sensorimotor circuits in restless legs syndrome.
A. Stefani (2019)
10.3174/ajnr.A5482
Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping with Automatic Zero Reference (QSM0) and Myelin Water Fraction Imaging to Quantify Iron-Related Myelin Damage in Chronic Active MS Lesions
Y. Yao (2018)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117358
Multi-centre, multi-vendor reproducibility of 7T QSM and R2* in the human brain: Results from the UK7T study
C. Rua (2020)
10.12693/APHYSPOLA.126.240
Mössbauer and SQUID Characterization of Iron in Human Tissue: Case of Globus Pallidus
Marcel Miglierini (2014)
10.1016/j.nicl.2015.06.003
A multi-contrast MRI study of microstructural brain damage in patients with mild cognitive impairment
C. Granziera (2015)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.045
Abnormal subcortical deep-gray matter susceptibility-weighted imaging filtered phase measurements in patients with multiple sclerosis: A case-control study
R. Zivadinov (2012)
in Multiple s clerosis: An Imaging Marker of Disease 1
Andrew J. Lowenthal Walsh (2014)
10.1148/radiol.12120863
Multiple sclerosis: validation of MR imaging for quantification and detection of iron.
A. Walsh (2013)
10.3174/ajnr.A5150
Heterogeneity of Cortical Lesion Susceptibility Mapping in Multiple Sclerosis
M. Castellaro (2017)
10.1038/s41598-020-70805-5
Extrapyramidal plasticity predicts recovery after spinal cord injury
E. Huber (2020)
10.1002/mrm.25316
Quantitative susceptibility mapping using single‐shot echo‐planar imaging
H. Sun (2015)
10.1038/nrneurol.2015.157
Evidence-based guidelines: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines on the use of MRI in multiple sclerosis—establishing disease prognosis and monitoring patients
M. Wattjes (2015)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar