Modification Of The Gating Of The Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-release Channel By H2O2 And Dithiothreitol
The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the sheep cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-release channel has been investigated under voltage-clamp conditions after incorporation of native membrane vesicles into planar phospholipid bilayers. In the presence of micromolar activating calcium concentrations on the cytosolic side of the membrane, H2O2 (3-5 mM) increased open probability of the channels. H2O2 did not affect the conductance of the channel or the response to activating compounds, such as ATP and caffeine. H2O2 did not alter the inhibitory response to magnesium or the modification of channels by ryanodine. At subactivating calcium concentrations (approximately 45 pM) on the cytosolic side of the membrane, 5 mM H2O2 was still able to open the channel. Analysis of single-channel open and closed lifetimes suggested that H2O2 had a direct effect on the gating mechanism of the channel. Open probability of the SR Ca(2+)-release channel is reduced by millimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol, a sulfhydryl-protecting compound, in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, it is probable that H2O2 activates the SR Ca(2+)-release channel via an oxidation of cysteine thiol groups in the channel protein.