Role Of Ca2+ In Diperoxovanadate-induced Cytoskeletal Remodeling And Endothelial Cell Barrier Function
Diperoxovanadate (DPV), a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases and activator of tyrosine kinases, alters endothelial barrier function via signaling pathways that are incompletely understood. One potential pathway is Src kinase-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins such as cortactin that regulate endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton assembly. As DPV modulates endothelial cell signaling via protein tyrosine phosphorylation, we determined the role of DPV-induced intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in activation of Src kinase, cytoskeletal remodeling, and barrier function in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAECs). DPV in a dose- and time-dependent fashion increased [Ca2+]i, which was partially blocked by the calcium channel blockers nifedipine and Gd3+. Treatment of cells with thapsigargin released Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, and subsequent addition of DPV caused no further change in [Ca2+]i. These data suggest that DPV-induced [Ca2+]i includes Ca release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca influx through store-operated calcium entry. Furthermore, DPV induced an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphorylation of Src and cortactin, actin remodeling, and altered transendothelial electrical resistance in BPAECs. These DPV-mediated effects were significantly attenuated by BAPTA (25 μM), a chelator of [Ca2+]i. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that the DPV-mediated colocalization of cortactin with peripheral actin was also prevented by BAPTA. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ by EGTA had marginal effects on DPV-induced phosphorylation of Src and cortactin; actin stress fibers formation, however, affected EC barrier function. These data suggest that DPV-induced changes in [Ca2+]i regulate endothelial barrier function using signaling pathways that involve Src and cytoskeleton remodeling.