Oxidant-mediated Activation Of Phospholipase A2 In Pulmonary Endothelium
Exposure of bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to the oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bu-OOH) caused a dose-dependent increase in the release of [14C]arachidonic acid and synthesis of the cyclooxygenase products, thromboxane, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin D2, and prostacyclin. There was no detectable production of peptide leukotrienes before or after administration of t-bu-OOH. Pretreatment with the oxygen radical scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidino radical (HTP) or the antioxidants vitamin E and dithiothreitol prevented the increased arachidonic acid (AA) release caused by t-bu-OOH. t-bu-OOH increased the activity of phospholipase A2 by increasing its apparent maximum velocity without affecting its Michaelis constant. The increased AA release caused by t-bu-OOH did not appear to require new RNA or protein synthesis, because pretreatment of the cells with actinomycin D or cycloheximide did not reduce the increased release of AA or activation of phospholipase A2 caused by t-bu-OOH. Dexamethasone pretreatment of the cells prevented the increase in phospholipase A2 activity, and AA release produced by t-bu-OOH. t-bu-OOH increased the activity of phospholipase A2 and release of AA in both the presence and absence of extracellular calcium (Ca2+). Pretreatment with a nominal Ca2+-free buffer, the Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, nifedipine, or verapamil did not reduce t-bu-OOH-stimulated AA release. In contrast, treatment with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 8-N,N-diethyamino octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) prevented t-bu-OOH-stimulated AA release in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Treatment with calmodulin antagonists also prevented the increased release of AA caused by t-bu-OOH.