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Input-output Relationships Of The Primary Face Motor Cortex In The Monkey (Macaca Fascicularis).
Published 1989 · Psychology, Medicine
1. Somatosensory afferent input and its relationship with efferent output were examined in the primary face motor cortex (MI) and adjacent cerebral cortical areas. Excitatory afferent inputs were tested in a total of 1,654 single neurons recorded in awake or anesthetized monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), and output was characterized in these same monkeys by the movement and EMG responses evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) at the neuronal recording sites. 2. Most neurons in the MI area responded to light tactile stimulation of the orofacial region, especially the upper lip, lower lip, and tongue. Although contralateral afferent inputs predominated, 21% of the neurons received ipsilateral or bilateral orofacial inputs. The afferent input evoked by tactile stimulation of the upper and lower lips was represented especially at the medial border and the input from the tongue at the lateral border of MI. However, in most regions of MI between the medial and lateral borders, an intermingling of tactile inputs from different orofacial areas occurred. Multiple representation of tactile input from the same orofacial area was found in several, often quite separate, intracortical sites in MI. 3. Only a small proportion of the MI neurons could be activated by the deep stimuli used (e.g., stretch and pressure applied to muscle, passive jaw movement, low-intensity stimulation of hypoglossal nerve) from the orofacial region. Those neurons which did respond to these low-threshold deep inputs were not clearly segregated from those which responded to tactile input, although most of the neurons receiving deep input were located in the rostral part of MI. 4. A somatotopic pattern of representation of orofacial tactile input was more obvious in the primary face somatosensory cortex (SI). At the medial border of SI, the periorbital area was represented, then followed laterally in sequence the tactile representation of the upper lip, lower lip, and intraoral area. Contralateral afferent inputs predominated, but as in MI, a considerable proportion of SI neurons received ipsilateral or bilateral orofacial inputs. Few neurons in the region explored (areas 3b, 1, and 2) responded to deep orofacial stimuli. 5. Tactile input also dominated the input patterns of neurons in the premotor cortex (PM). Most neurons received ipsilateral or bilateral orofacial afferent inputs and no clear somatotopic pattern was noted. Several PM neurons were also activated by visual stimuli. 6. Muscle twitches evoked by ICMS were limited to MI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)