Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Microstimulation Mapping Of Precentral Cortex During Trained Movements.

E. Schmidt, J. S. Mcintosh
Published 1990 · Psychology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
1. The precentral cortex of three Macaca mulatta monkeys were mapped with intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) while the monkeys performed alternating wrist flexion and extension movements. A forearm cocontraction task was also employed with one monkey. Electromyogram (EMG) recordings from forearm muscles were used to evaluate the results of ICMS. 2. We have found that the results of ICMS can be misleading if EMG activity is not recorded from the responding muscle. Inhibition can be interpreted as excitation if muscle palpation or joint movement are the only response criteria. 3. Movement of the stimulating electrode by as little as 200 microns in a single radial column sometimes changed EMG responses from inhibition to excitation or vice versa, indicating that cortical inhibitory areas for a muscle can be located very close to excitatory zones. 4. Both excitation and inhibition of muscles could be produced with ICMS of precentral cortex when the animal was performing a task involving the muscles being mapped. EMG responses to ICMS were stable, provided that the stimulation was applied at the same time during a repetitive task such that the motoneurons were at a given level of excitability. 5. Zones where ICMS produced inhibition of a particular forearm muscle were interspersed among zones that produced excitation for that muscle. 6. Regions exist in precentral cortex where ICMS activates antagonistic wrist muscles producing cocontraction. 7. The extensive cortical region from which any individual muscle can be activated or suppressed with ICMS and the various combinations of muscles that are activated from within this region suggest that different types of movements involving a single muscle are represented at different locations within this region. 8. At a few locations in precentral cortex, the EMG responses to ICMS were not just a function of the level of excitation of the motoneuron pool at the time of stimulation but were also dependent on the specific task the monkey was performing at the time of stimulation.

This paper is referenced by
Brain-Machine Interfaces: From Basic Science to Neuroprostheses and Neurorehabilitation.
M. Lebedev (2017)
Differential Joint-Specific Corticospinal Tract Projections within the Cervical Enlargement
C. Asante (2013)
Cortical Cell Assemblies: A Possible Mechanism for
J. Wickens (1994)
Activities of the Primary and Supplementary Motor Areas Increase in Preparation and Execution of Voluntary Muscle Relaxation: An Event-Related fMRI Study
K. Toma (1999)
Neurophysiological correlates of hand preference in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys
R. Nudo (1992)
Relaxation in distal and proximal arm muscles: a reaction time study
A. Buccolieri (2003)
Abnormal cortical processing of voluntary muscle relaxation in patients with focal hand dystonia studied by movement-related potentials.
S. Yazawa (1999)
Pharmacological inactivation in the analysis of the central control of movement
J. Martin (1999)
Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex.
R. Chen (1998)
Muscle relaxation is impaired in dystonia: A reaction time study
A. Buccolieri (2004)
Fields in human motor areas involved in preparation for reaching, actual reaching, and visuomotor learning: a positron emission tomography study
R. Kawashima (1994)
Motor inhibition and excitation are independent effects of magnetic cortical stimulation
W. J. Triggs (1992)
Impaired inhibition in writer's cramp during voluntary muscle activation
R. Chen (1997)
The fronto-parietal cortex of the prosimian Galago: Patterns of cytochrome oxidase activity and motor maps
L. Fogassi (1994)
Neuromuscular function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy
K. Tammik (2007)
On the Role of Muscle Relaxation and Elasticity in the Adaptation Process of Distance Runners
Ants Nurmekivi (2017)
Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on ipsilateral muscles
E. Wassermann (1991)
Writing's Shadow: Corticospinal Activation during Letter Observation
Masahiro Nakatsuka (2012)
Intracortical connections between motor cortical zones controlling antagonistic muscles in the cat: a combined anatomical and physiological study
C. Capaday (1998)
Differential effects of local inactivation within motor cortex and red nucleus on performance of an elbow task in the cat
J. Martin (2004)
Comparing cerebellar and motor cortical activity in reaching and grasping.
A. M. Smith (1993)
Behavioral / Systems / Cognitive Hijacking Cortical Motor Output with Repetitive Microstimulation
D. Griffin (2011)
Changes of cortical motor area size during immobilization.
J. Liepert (1995)
Comparison of the magnetically mapped corticomotor representation of a muscle at rest and during low-level voluntary contraction.
S. Wilson (1995)
Negative myoclonus induced by cortical electrical stimulation in epileptic patients.
G. Rubboli (2006)
Differential impairments in reaching and grasping produced by local inactivation within the forelimb representation of the motor cortex in the cat
J. Martin (2004)
Different patterns of excitation and inhibition of the small hand and forearm muscles from magnetic brain stimulation in humans
L. Wu (2002)
Neurophysiology of positive and negative myoclonus.
C. Tassinari (1998)
Organization of the forelimb area in squirrel monkey motor cortex: representation of digit, wrist, and elbow muscles
J. Donoghue (2004)
Desynchronization and synchronization of central 20-Hz rhythms associated with voluntary muscle relaxation: a magnetoencephalographic study
K. Toma (2000)
Cortical mechanisms of unilateral voluntary motor inhibition in humans
T. Begum (2005)
Cortical modulation of transmission in spinal reflex pathways of man.
J. Iles (1992)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar