Cerebral Structures Participating In Motor Preparation In Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study
1. Using positron emission tomography and measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as an index of cerebral activity we investigated the central processing of motor preparation in 13 healthy volunteers. 2. We used a motor reaction time paradigm with visual cues as preparatory and response signals. A preparatory stimulus (PS) provided either full, partial, or no information regarding two variables of a forthcoming right finger movement: finger type (index or little finger) and movement direction (abduction or elevation). After a variable delay period, a response stimulus (RS) prompted the movement. A condition was also tested in which the subject could freely select any of the four possible movements during the preparation period ("free" condition). The timing of events was designed to emphasize the motor preparation phase over the motor execution component during the scanning time of 1 min. 3. Distinct preparatory processes, which depended on the information contained in the PS, were demonstrated by significant differences in reaction time between conditions. The reaction time was shorter in the "full" and free conditions, intermediate in the two partial information conditions ("finger" and "direction"), and longer when no preparatory information was available ("none" condition). Conversely, movement time and movement amplitude were similar between conditions, establishing the constancy of the motor executive output. 4. In comparison with a "rest" condition, which had matched visual inputs, the different conditions of motor preparation were associated with increased rCBF in a common set of cerebral regions: the contralateral frontal cortex (sensorimotor, premotor, cingulate, and supplementary motor cortex), the contralateral parietal association cortex (anterior and posterior regions), the ipsilateral cerebellum, the contralateral basal ganglia, and the thalamus. This observation substantiates the participation of those cerebral structures in the preparation for movement. Furthermore, the similarity of the activated areas among the different conditions compared with the rest condition suggests a single anatomic substrate for motor preparation, independent of the movement information context. 5. Differing amounts of movement information contained in the PS affected rCBF changes in some cerebral regions. In particular, the rCBF in the anterior parietal cortex (Brodmann's area 40) was significantly larger in each of the full, finger, and direction conditions, individually, compared with the none condition. This observation supports the hypothesis that the anterior parietal association cortex plays a major role in the use of visual instructions contained in the PS for partial or complete preparation to perform a motor act. On the other hand, the posterior parietal association cortex (Brodmann's area 7) was more activated in the finger, direction, and none conditions than in the full condition. This increased activity with restricted advance information suggests that the posterior region of the parietal cortex is concerned with correct movement selection on the basis of enhanced spatial attention to the RS. 6. In contrast with the parietal cortex, the secondary motor areas (i.e, premotor cortex, cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area) showed similar activity regardless of the degree of preparation allowed by the advance visual information. Thus the parietal cortex may play a more crucial role than the secondary motor areas in integrating visual information in preparation for movement. 7. The effect on brain activity of the internal (self-generated) versus the external (cued) mode of movement selection was assessed by comparing the free and full conditions, the preparatory component being matched in the two conditions. The anterior part of the supplementary motor area was the main area preferentially involved in the internal selection of movement, independently of motor preparation processes.