Exercise Induces Human Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Expression In Skeletal Muscle But Not Adipose Tissue
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is regulated by exercise in humans, but the effects of exercise on LPL expression in different tissues and the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. We assessed the effects of 5-13 consecutive days of supervised exercise on tissue LPL expression as well as fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in 32 sedentary, weight-stable adult men. In skeletal muscle, exercise training increased the mean LPL mRNA level by 117% (P = 0.037), LPL protein mass by 53% (P = 0.038), and total LPL enzyme activity by 35% (P = 0.025). In adipose tissue, mean LPL mRNA, protein mass, and activity did not change. Exercise decreased triglycerides [from 172 +/- 4.3 to 127 +/- 3.2 (SE) mg/dl, P = 0.002], total cholesterol (from 188 +/- 1.2 to 181 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P = 0.011), and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (from 30.1 +/- 0.9 to 22.0 +/- 0.8, P = 0.004) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; from 43.4 +/- 0.35 to 45.0 +/- 0.37, P = 0.030) and HDL2-C (from 6.6 +/- 0.21 to 7.7 +/- 0.19, P = 0.021). Changes in muscle but not adipose tissue heparin-releasable LPL activity were inversely correlated (r = -0.435, P < 0.034) with changes in triglycerides. These data suggest the existence of an exercise stimulus intrinsic to skeletal muscle, which raises LPL activity in part by pretranslational mechanisms, a process that contributes to the improvement in circulating lipids seen with physical activity.