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Diesel Exhaust Particles Are Taken Up By Human Airway Epithelial Cells In Vitro And Alter Cytokine Production.

S. Boland, A. Baeza-Squiban, T. Fournier, O. Houcine, M. Gendron, M. Chévrier, G. Jouvenot, A. Coste, M. Aubier, F. Marano
Published 1999 · Medicine, Biology

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The involvement of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) in respiratory diseases was evaluated by studying their effects on two in vitro models of human airway epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of DEPs, their phagocytosis, and the resulting immune response were investigated in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as in human nasal epithelial cells in primary culture. DEP exposure induced a time- and dose-dependent membrane damage. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DEPs underwent endocytosis by epithelial cells and translocated through the epithelial cell sheet. Flow cytometric measurements allowed establishment of the time and dose dependency of this phagocytosis and its nonspecificity with different particles (DEPs, carbon black, and latex particles). DEPs also induced a time-dependent increase in interleukin-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-1β release. This inflammatory response occurred later than phagocytosis, and its extent seems to depend on the content of adsorbed organic compounds because carbon black had no effect on cytokine release. Furthermore, exhaust gas posttreatments, which diminished the adsorbed organic compounds, reduced the DEP-induced increase in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor release. These results suggest that DEPs could 1) be phagocytosed by airway epithelial cells and 2) induce a specific inflammatory response.
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