Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Influence Of Tongue Muscle Contraction And Transmural Pressure On Nasopharyngeal Geometry In The Rat.

R. Fregosi
Published 2011 · Chemistry, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The mammalian pharynx is a hollow muscular tube that participates in ingestion and respiration, and its size, shape, and stiffness can be altered by contraction of skeletal muscles that lie inside or outside of its walls. MRI was used to determine the interaction between pharyngeal pressure and selective stimulation of extrinsic tongue muscles on the shape of the rat nasopharynx. Pressure (-9, -6, -3, 3, 6, and 9 cmH₂O) was applied randomly to the isolated pharyngeal airway of anesthetized rats that were positioned in a 4.7-T MRI scanner. The anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral diameters of the nasopharynx were measured in eight axial slices at each level of pressure, with and without bilateral hypoglossal nerve stimulation (0.1-ms pulse, 1/3 maximal force, 80 Hz). The rat nasopharynx is nearly circular, and positive pharyngeal pressure caused similar expansion of AP and lateral diameters; as a result, airway shape (ratio of lateral to AP diameter) remained constant. Negative pressure did not change AP or lateral diameter significantly, suggesting that a negative pressure reflex activated the tongue or other pharyngeal muscles. Stimulation of tongue protrudor muscles alone or coactivation of protrudor and retractor muscles caused greater AP than lateral expansion, making the nasopharynx slightly more elliptical, with the long axis in the AP direction. These effects tended to be more pronounced at negative pharyngeal pressures and greater in the caudal than rostral nasopharynx. These data show that stimulation of rodent tongue muscles can adjust pharyngeal shape, extending previous work showing that tongue muscle contraction alters pharyngeal compliance and volume, and provide physiological insight that can be applied to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.
This paper references
10.1183/09031936.01.17100790
Magnetic resonance imaging of the pharynx in OSA patients and healthy subjects.
M. Ciscar (2001)
10.1093/SLEEP/31.11.1543
Effect of body posture on pharyngeal shape and size in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea.
J. Walsh (2008)
10.1164/AJRCCM.161.5.9907109
Local mechanisms drive genioglossus activation in obstructive sleep apnea.
A. Malhotra (2000)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00324.2002
Awake negative pressure reflex response of the genioglossus in OSA patients and normal subjects.
R. Berry (2003)
10.1164/AJRCCM.155.5.9154887
Effect of mandibular and tongue protrusion on upper airway size during wakefulness.
K. Ferguson (1997)
10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073502
Pharyngeal airway wall mechanics using tagged magnetic resonance imaging during medial hypoglossal nerve stimulation in rats
M. Brennick (2004)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00733.2003
Coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles during spontaneous breathing in the rat.
E. F. Bailey (2004)
10.1152/JAPPL.1999.86.1.411
Mechanical effects of pharyngeal constrictor activation on pharyngeal airway function.
S. Kuna (1999)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00379.2006
Anatomic consequences of intrinsic tongue muscle activation.
E. F. Bailey (2006)
10.1109/42.932745
Videoendoscopic distortion correction and its application to virtual guidance of endoscopy
J. P. Helferty (2001)
10.1164/AJRCCM.152.5.7582313
Upper airway and soft tissue anatomy in normal subjects and patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Significance of the lateral pharyngeal walls.
R. Schwab (1995)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.2003.00563.x
Pressure‐volume behaviour of the rat upper airway: effects of tongue muscle activation
E. F. Bailey (2003)
10.1113/jphysiol.2006.121889
Genioglossus premotoneurons and the negative pressure reflex in rats
N. Chamberlin (2007)
10.1002/1097-0185(20001201)260:4<378::AID-AR70>3.0.CO;2-A
Functional anatomy of the hypoglossal innervated muscles of the rat tongue: A model for elongation and protrusion of the mammalian tongue
J. McClung (2000)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.0601m.x
Effect of co‐activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles on tongue movements and pharyngeal airflow mechanics in the rat
D. Fuller (1999)
10.1164/AJRCCM.153.3.8630569
Upper airway shape: Is it important in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea?
J. Leiter (1996)
10.1164/AJRCCM.165.1.2011065
Pharyngeal pressure and flow effects on genioglossus activation in normal subjects.
A. Malhotra (2002)
10.1164/RCCM.200411-1550OC
PO2-dependent changes in intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscle activities in the rat.
E. F. Bailey (2005)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0677h.x
Phasic mechanoreceptor stimuli can induce phasic activation of upper airway muscles in humans
T. Akahoshi (2001)
10.1007/BF02577720
Ferromagnetism and magnetic resonance artifacts of platinum embolization microcoils
M. W. Marshall (2007)
10.1164/RCCM.200505-790OC
Respiratory-related discharge of genioglossus muscle motor units.
J. John (2005)
10.1152/JAPPL.2000.89.4.1345
No evidence for long-term facilitation after episodic hypoxia in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized rats.
P. Janssen (2000)
10.1152/JN.1995.74.2.547
Contractile properties of the tongue muscles: effects of hypoglossal nerve and extracellular motoneuron stimulation in rat.
E. E. Gilliam (1995)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0525f.x
Effect of pulmonary stretch receptor feedback and CO2 on upper airway and respiratory pump muscle activity in the rat
E. F. Bailey (2001)
10.1164/AJRCCM.164.7.2011030
Effects of pharyngeal muscle activation on airway size and configuration.
S. Kuna (2001)
10.1111/J.1096-3642.1985.TB01178.X
Tongues, tentacles and trunks: the biomechanics of movement in muscular‐hydrostats
W. Kier (1985)
10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00647.x
Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea
JENNIFER H. Walsh (2008)
10.1152/JAPPL.1998.85.5.1884
MRI study of regional variations of pharyngeal wall compliance in cats.
M. Brennick (1998)
10.1152/JAPPL.2001.90.4.1373
MRI study of pharyngeal airway changes during stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve branches in rats.
M. Brennick (2001)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.01043.2007
Influence of tongue muscle contraction and dynamic airway pressure on velopharyngeal volume in the rat.
R. Fregosi (2008)
10.1136/thx.45.10.722
Pharyngeal shape and dimensions in healthy subjects, snorers, and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
D. Rodenstein (1990)
10.1152/JAPPL.2000.88.5.1915
Consequences of periodic augmented breaths on tongue muscle activities in hypoxic rats.
P. Janssen (2000)
10.1183/09031936.96.09091801
Relationship between body mass index, age and upper airway measurements in snorers and sleep apnoea patients.
P. Mayer (1996)
10.1016/S0034-5687(97)00095-9
Respiratory-related control of extrinsic tongue muscle activity.
R. Fregosi (1997)
10.1152/JAPPL.1992.73.2.576
Analysis of pharyngeal resistance and genioglossal EMG activity using a model of orifice flow.
J. Leiter (1992)
10.1093/SLEEP/26.2.150
Anatomic and physiologic predictors of apnea severity in morbidly obese subjects.
R. Fogel (2003)
10.1152/JAPPLPHYSIOL.00203.2003
Upper airway response to electrical stimulation of the genioglossus in obstructive sleep apnea.
A. Oliven (2003)
10.1016/S0034-5687(01)00230-4
Genioglossal inspiratory activation: central respiratory vs mechanoreceptive influences.
G. Pillar (2001)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.265bu.x
Co‐activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles during chemoreceptor stimulation in the rat
D. Fuller (1998)
10.1152/JAPPL.1993.75.1.148
Static mechanics of the velopharynx of patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
S. Isono (1993)
10.1016/J.ARCHORALBIO.2006.11.012
Immunohistochemical characterization of slow and fast myosin heavy chain composition of muscle fibres in the styloglossus muscle of the human and macaque (Macaca rhesus).
A. Sokoloff (2007)
10.1164/AJRCCM/138.4.969
Effect of nasal airway positive pressure on upper airway size and configuration.
S. Kuna (1988)
10.1016/j.resp.2006.08.010
Mechanical effects of genioglossus muscle stimulation on the pharyngeal airway by MRI in cats
M. Brennick (2007)
10.1183/09031936.00131106
Effect of genioglossus contraction on pharyngeal lumen and airflow in sleep apnoea patients
A. Oliven (2007)
10.1164/RCCM.200309-1283OC
Regional effects of selective pharyngeal muscle activation on airway shape.
S. Kuna (2004)
10.1002/NBM.1129
Regional velopharyngeal compliance in the rat: influence of tongue muscle contraction
Cornelius Van Zutphen (2007)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar