Contraction-stimulated Glucose Transport In Rat Skeletal Muscle Is Sustained Despite Reversal Of Increased PAS-phosphorylation Of AS160 And TBC1D1
Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), the most distal insulin signaling protein known to be important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, becomes phosphorylated with skeletal muscle contraction. Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) have been implicated in regulating AS160 and/or glucose transport. Our primary aim was to assess time courses for contraction's effects on glucose transport and phosphorylation of Akt, AMPK, CaMKII, and AS160. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscles were studied without or with contraction (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 min). Phospho-Akt substrate (PAS) antibody was used to measure AS160 PAS phosphorylation by quantifying the ∼160-kDa band on PAS immunoblots (PAS-160); a separate band at 150 kDa (PAS-150) that responded similarly to contraction was also identified. Using specific antibodies for AS160 or TBC1D1 on immunoblots, the molecular mass of PAS-160 was found to correspond with that of AS160 and not TBC1D1, whereas PAS-150 corresponded with TBC1D1 and not AS160. Furthermore, supernatant of sample immunodepleted with anti-AS160 had greatly reduced PAS-160, whereas supernatant of sample immunodepleted with anti-TBC1D1 had greatly reduced PAS-150, providing further evidence that PAS-160 and PAS-150 correspond with PAS-AS160 and PAS-TBC1D1, respectively. Contraction induced transient increases in PAS-160, PAS-150, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (an Akt substrate) and phospho-CaMKII; glucose transport and phospho-AMPK increases were maintained for 60 min of contraction. These data suggest the following: 1) PAS-160 (AS160) and PAS-150 (TBC1D1) respond to contraction transiently, despite sustained stimulation; 2) continual AMPK activation was insufficient for sustained increase in PAS-160 or PAS-150; and 3) sustained elevation of PAS-160 or PAS-150 was unnecessary to maintain contraction-stimulated glucose transport for up to 60 min.