Mechanisms Of Cellular Effects Directly Induced By Magnetic Nanoparticles Under Magnetic Fields
The interaction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with various magnetic fields could directly induce cellular effects. Many scattered investigations have got involved in these cellular effects, analyzed their relative mechanisms, and extended their biomedical uses in magnetic hyperthermia and cell regulation. This review reports these cellular effects and their important applications in biomedical area. More importantly, we highlight the underlying mechanisms behind these direct cellular effects in the review from the thermal energy and mechanical force. Recently, some physical analyses showed that the mechanisms of heat and mechanical force in cellular effects are controversial. Although the physical principle plays an important role in these cellular effects, some chemical reactions such as free radical reaction also existed in the interaction of MNPs with magnetic fields, which provides the possible explanation for the current controversy. It is anticipated that the review here could provide readers with a deeper understanding of mechanisms of how MNPs contribute to the direct cellular effects and thus their biomedical applications under various magnetic fields.