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Ex Vivo Cardiotoxicity Of Antineoplastic Casiopeinas Is Mediated Through Energetic Dysfunction And Triggered Mitochondrial-Dependent Apoptosis

Christian Silva-Platas, César A. Villegas, Yuriana Oropeza-Almazán, Mariana Carrancá, Alejandro Torres-Quintanilla, Omar Lozano, Javier Valero-Elizondo, Elena C. Castillo, Judith Bernal-Ramírez, Evaristo Fernández-Sada, Luis F. Vega, Niria Treviño-Saldaña, Héctor Chapoy-Villanueva, Lena Ruiz-Azuara, Carmen Hernández-Brenes, Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor, Carlos E. Guerrero-Beltrán, Karla Carvajal, María E. Bravo-Gómez, Gerardo García-Rivas

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Casiopeinas are a group of copper-based antineoplastic molecules designed as a less toxic and more therapeutic alternative to cisplatin or Doxorubicin; however, there is scarce evidence about their toxic effects on the whole heart and cardiomyocytes. Given this, rat hearts were perfused with Casiopeinas or Doxorubicin and the effects on mechanical performance, energetics, and mitochondrial function were measured. As well, the effects of Casiopeinas-triggered cell death were explored in isolated cardiomyocytes. Casiopeinas III-Ea, II-gly, and III-ia induced a progressive and sustained inhibition of heart contractile function that was dose- and time-dependent with an IC50 of 1.3 ± 0.2, 5.5 ± 0.5, and 10 ± 0.7 μM, correspondingly. Myocardial oxygen consumption was not modified at their respective IC50, although ATP levels were significantly reduced, indicating energy impairment. Isolated mitochondria from Casiopeinas-treated hearts showed a significant loss of membrane potential and reduction of mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity. Interestingly, Cyclosporine A inhibited Casiopeinas-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ release, which suggests the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition, Casiopeinas reduced the viability of cardiomyocytes and stimulated the activation of caspases 3, 7, and 9, demonstrating a cell death mitochondrial-dependent mechanism. Finally, the early perfusion of Cyclosporine A in isolated hearts decreased Casiopeinas-induced dysfunction with reduction of their toxic effect. Our results suggest that heart cardiotoxicity of Casiopeinas is similar to that of Doxorubicin, involving heart mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of membrane potential, changes in energetic metabolites, and apoptosis triggered by mitochondrial permeability.