Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were associated with the overall survival (OS) of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) patients undergoing surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 51 qualified patients who were diagnosed with AA and underwent surgical interventions in our institution were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were followed up for at least 30 months or until death. Texture features derived from histogram-based matrix (HISTO) and grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Each texture feature was dichotomized based on its optimal cutoff value calculated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Kaplan–Meier analysis and log rank test were conducted to compare the 30-month OS between the dichotomized subgroups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. Results. Three HISTO-derived features (HISTO-Energy, HISTO-Entropy, and HISTO-Skewness) and five GLCM-derived features (GLCM-Contrast, GLCM-Energy, GLCM-Entropy, GLCM-Homogeneity, and GLCM-Dissimilarity) were found to be significantly correlated with 30-month OS. Moreover, GLCM-Homogeneity (, hazard ratio = 6.351) was suggested to be the independent predictor of the patient survival. Conclusion. MRI-based texture features have the potential to be applied as prognostic biomarkers in AA patients undergoing surgical treatment.