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Review On The Antibacterial Mechanism Of Plant-Derived Compounds Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria (MDR)

Najwan Jubair, Mogana Rajagopal, Sasikala Chinnappan, Norhayati Binti Abdullah, Ayesha Fatima

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Microbial resistance has progressed rapidly and is becoming the leading cause of death globally. The spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has been a significant threat to the successful therapy against microbial infections. Scientists have become more concerned about the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic era. Thus, searching for alternatives to fight microorganisms has become a necessity. Some bacteria are naturally resistant to antibiotics, while others acquire resistance mainly by the misuse of antibiotics and the emergence of new resistant variants through mutation. Since ancient times, plants represent the leading source of drugs and alternative medicine for fighting against diseases. Plants are rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, quinones, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. Many studies focus on plant secondary metabolites as a potential source for antibiotic discovery. They have the required structural properties and can act by different mechanisms. This review analyses the antibiotic resistance strategies produced by multidrug-resistant bacteria and explores the phytochemicals from different classes with documented antimicrobial action against resistant bacteria, either alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics.