Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Cigarette Smoking And Lung Cancer: Modeling Total Exposure And Intensity

J. Lubin, N. Caporaso
Published 2006 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Investigators typically analyze cigarette smoking using smoking duration and intensity (number of cigarettes smoked per day) as risk factors. However, odds ratios (OR) for categories of intensity either adjusted for, or jointly with, duration of smoking may be distorted by differences in total pack-years of exposure to cigarette smoke. To study effects of intensity, we apply a linear excess OR model to compare total exposure delivered at low intensity for a long period of time with an equal total exposure delivered at high intensity for a short period of time to data from a large case-control study of lung cancer. The excess OR per pack-year increases with intensity for subjects who smoke ≤20 cigarettes per day and decreases with intensity for subjects who smoke >20 cigarettes per day. The intensity patterns are homogeneous by histologic type of lung cancer, suggesting that observed differences in risks by histologic type are related to total smoking exposure or smoking duration and not smoking intensity. At lower smoking intensities, there is an “exposure enhancement” effect such that for equal total exposure, the excess OR per pack-year increases with intensity. At higher smoking intensities, there is a “reduced potency” or “wasted exposure” effect such that for equal total exposure, the excess OR per pack-year decreases with intensity (i.e., smoking at a lower intensity for longer duration is more deleterious than smoking at a higher intensity for shorter duration). (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(3):517–23)
This paper references
Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking casino patrons.
K. Anderson (2003)
Smoking-related DNA and protein adducts in human tissues.
D. Phillips (2002)
Dose-response relationships in chemical carcinogenesis: superposition of different mechanisms of action, resulting in linear-nonlinear curves, practical thresholds, J-shapes.
W. Lutz (1998)
Re: "Modeling smoking history: a comparison of different approaches".
K. Hoffmann (2003)
Using splines to analyse latency in the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort.
M. Hauptmann (2001)
Markers of DNA repair and susceptibility to cancer in humans: an epidemiologic review.
M. Berwick (2000)
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, Superintendent of Documents
U S Department (2004)
Logistic regression analysis for more than one characteristic of exposure.
B. McKnight (1999)
HiroSoft International Corporation
D L Preston (2002)
of Health and Human Services
U. S. Departmen (2004)
Levelling-off of the risk of lung and bladder cancer in heavy smokers: an analysis based on multicentric case-control studies and a metabolic interpretation.
P. Vineis (2000)
A flexible modeling approach to estimating the component effects of smoking behavior on lung cancer.
B. Rachet (2004)
Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette.
F. Patterson (2003)
Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer: the role of DNA damage and repair.
M. Spitz (2003)
Dose‐response relationship in tobacco‐related cancers of bladder and lung: A biochemical interpretation
P. Vineis (2004)
Modeling Lung Cancer Risk in Case-Control Studies Using a New Dose Metric of Smoking
S. Thurston (2005)
Intraindividual and interindividual differences in metabolites of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokers' urine.
S. Carmella (1995)
Smoking, DNA repair capacity and risk of nonsmall cell lung cancer
H. Shen (2003)
Large-scale investigation of base excision repair genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in a multicenter study.
R. Hung (2005)
Repair of tobacco carcinogen-induced DNA adducts and lung cancer risk: a molecular epidemiologic study.
Q. Wei (2000)
Patterns of lung cancer risk according to type of cigarette smoked
J. Lubin (1984)
The dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption, biochemical markers and risk of lung cancer.
M. Law (1997)
Cigarette smoking and bronchial carcinoma: dose and time relationships among regular smokers and lifelong non-smokers.
R. Doll (1978)
Assessment of lung cancer risk factors by histologic category.
J. Lubin (1984)
DNA repair capacity and risk of nonsmall cell lung cancer
H B Shen (2003)
Air pollution exposure-DNA adduct dosimetry in humans and rodents: evidence for non-linearity at high doses.
J. Lewtas (1997)
A Comprehensive Index for the Modeling of Smoking History in Periodontal Research
T. Dietrich (2004)
The role of DNA repair capacity in susceptibility to lung cancer: A review
Q. Wei (2004)
Lung cancer mortality is related to age in addition to duration and intensity of cigarette smoking: an analysis of Cancer Prevention Study I data
JD Knoke (2006)
Nucleotide excision repair as a marker for susceptibility to tobacco‐related cancers: A review of molecular epidemiological studies
Ana S Neumann (2005)
Modeling smoking history: a comparison of different approaches.
K. Leffondré (2002)

This paper is referenced by
among Young Adults and the Middle-aged in Iran
Helsinki Finland (2009)
Genetic polymorphisms of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes and cancer risk
D. G. Hu (2016)
Flexible Modeling with Generalized Additive Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models: Comprehensive Simulation and Case Studies.
D. Hercz (2012)
Implementing lung cancer screening in the real world: opportunity, challenges and solutions.
R. Optican (2015)
Practice of Epidemiology Associations of Duration , Intensity , and Quantity of Smoking with Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus
N. Pandeya (2008)
Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium
M. Cook (2014)
Age and smoking as risk factors for malignancy in patients with peripheral solitary pulmonary nodules
Georgi Prisadov (2013)
Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study
Annett Dalbøge (2014)
Ocena statusu socjodemograficznego i stanu odżywienia chorych z rakiem płuca
K. Zablocka (2011)
Misunderstandings in the misconception on the use of pack-years in analysis of smoking
Jay H. Lubin (2013)
BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW July 2016 Third Consensus Conference on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: State-of-the-art and recommendations
The importance of exposure rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium.
Jay H. Lubin (2012)
Nicotine dependence phenotype and lung cancer risk
J. Muscat (2011)
Lung cancer health disparities.
B. Ryan (2018)
Dumitru Mihaela (2012)
Association between polymorphisms at N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) & risk of oral leukoplakia & cancer
Mousumi Majumder (2012)
hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and risk of lung cancer by histological type
T. Okasaka (2009)
The Contribution of Smoking to Black-White Differences in U.S. Mortality
J. Ho (2012)
Perturbation-Iteration Algorithm to Solve Fractional Giving Up Smoking Mathematical Model
M. Khalid (2016)
What to Do When Accumulated Exposure Affects Health but Only Its Duration Was Measured? A Case of Linear Regression
Igor Burstyn (2019)
Against Lung Cancer Cells: To Be, or Not to Be, That Is the Problem
Naoko Okumura (2012)
1 What to do when accumulated exposure affects 2 health but only its duration was measured ? A case of 3 linear regression . 4
F. Barone-Adesi (2019)
Association between long‐term low‐intensity cigarette smoking and incidence of smoking‐related cancer in the national institutes of health‐AARP cohort
Maki Inoue-Choi (2018)
The Third Italian Consensus Conference for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: State of the art and recommendations.
S. Novello (2016)
Non-linear dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis of 42 observational studies.
Li Zou (2014)
III Italian Consensus Conference on Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleura. Epidemiology, Public Health and Occupational Medicine related issues.
C. Magnani (2015)
Lung Cancer and Occupation in a Population-based Case-Control Study
D. Consonni (2010)
Recognising Lung Cancer in Primary Care
S. Bradley (2018)
Dynamical transmission and effect of smoking in society
et al. Ahmad (2018)
Decreased expression of cytochrome p450 1B1 in non-small cell lung cancer.
B. Słowikowski (2017)
Reproductive Hormones and Their Receptors May Affect Lung Cancer
Mengmeng Dou (2017)
22 – Pathologic Classification of Lung Malignancies and Special Pathologic Procedures
Alberto M. Marchevsky (2010)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar