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Influence Of Verapamil And Diclofenac On Leukocyte Migration In Rats

Luis Lopez Martinez, Maria Aparecida de Oliveira, Zuleica Bruno Fortes

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Abstract —Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and calcium channel blockers can reduce inflammatory responses. Leukocytes play an important role in these responses. An increased expression of adhesion molecules may increase leukocyte migration. Verapamil and diclofenac are known to reduce leukocyte-endothelium interaction. To investigate a possible synergism between these drugs that could be beneficial in cardiovascular diseases, we studied leukocyte behavior by using intravital microscopy. Venules of the spermatic fascia of anesthetized Wistar rats were observed with a closed-circuit TV coupled to an optical microscope. The number of leukocytes rolling along the venular endothelium (“rollers”), sticking after application of a stimulus such as leukotriene B 4 or zymozan-activated plasma (“stickers”), or migrating after a carrageenan stimulus was reduced by verapamil at the dose of 10 mg/kg IP and by diclofenac at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg IP. The combination of both did not augment the effect of each agent alone. Verapamil, diclofenac, or their combination did not interfere with vessel diameter, number of circulating leukocytes, blood pressure levels, or heart rate. Verapamil alone or together with diclofenac reduced venular blood flow velocity and in consequence, the venular shear rate. Our data allow us to suggest that these drugs might interfere with the expression of adhesion cell molecules to reduce cell migration in inflammation. The lack of synergism between the drugs might be explained by the reduction in venular shear rate induced by verapamil, which might not be sufficient to hinder the effect of verapamil alone but hindered the summation effects of both.