Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance has been useful in stenting for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis, its impact on long-term mortality is still unclear.
Methods and Results—
In the MAIN-COMPARE registry, patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis in a hemodynamically stable condition underwent elective stenting under the guidance of IVUS (756 patients) or conventional angiography (219 patients). Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. The 3-year outcomes between the 2 groups were primarily compared using propensity-score matching in the entire and separate populations according to stent type. In 201 matched pairs of the overall population, there was a tendency of lower risk of 3-year morality with IVUS guidance compared with angiography guidance (6.0% versus 13.6%, log-rank
=0.063; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.03; Cox-model
=0.061). In particular, in 145 matched pairs of patients receiving drug-eluting stent, the 3-year incidence of mortality was lower with IVUS guidance as compared with angiography guidance (4.7% versus 16.0%, log-rank
=0.048; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.02; Cox model
=0.055). In contrast, the use of IVUS guidance did not reduce the risk of mortality in 47 matched pairs of patients receiving bare-metal stent (8.6% versus 10.8%, log-rank
=0.35; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.91; Cox model
=0.38). The risk of myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization was not associated with the use of IVUS guidance.
Elective stenting with IVUS guidance, especially in the placement of drug-eluting stent, may reduce the long-term mortality rate for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis when compared with conventional angiography guidance.