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Development And Preliminary Validation Of The Lung Transplant Quality Of Life (LT‐QOL) Survey
J. Singer, A. Soong, Joan Chen, P. Shrestha, H. Zhuo, Ying Gao, J. Greenland, S. Hays, J. Kukreja, J. Golden, S. Gregorich, A. Stewart
Published 2019 · Medicine
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Rationale: Although lung transplantation aims to improve health‐related quality of life (HRQL), existing instruments fail to include health domains considered important in this population. Objectives: We aimed to develop a comprehensive lung transplant‐specific instrument to address this shortcoming. Methods: We developed a pool of 126 candidate items addressing domains previously identified as important by lung transplant recipients. Through cognitive interviews conducted in 43 transplant recipients, items deemed irrelevant or redundant were dropped. The 84 remaining items were field tested in lung transplant recipients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and scales were evaluated for internal consistency and construct validity. Measurements and Main Results: The 84‐item preliminary survey was administered to 201 lung transplant recipients with a mean age of 57.9 (±12.7) years; 46% were female. After factor analyses and internal consistency evaluation, we retained 60 items comprising the Lung Transplant Quality of Life (LT‐QOL) Survey. The LT‐QOL contains 10 scales that measure symptoms, health perceptions, functioning, and well‐being. The confirmatory factor analysis model had good approximate fit (comparative fit index = 0.990; standardized root‐mean‐square residual = 0.062). Cronbach &agr;s for the 10 scales ranged from 0.75 to 0.95. Interscale correlations were consistent with hypothesized relationships. Subjects with severe chronic lung allograft dysfunction (n = 13) reported significantly worse HRQL than subjects without chronic lung allograft dysfunction (n = 168) on 6 of the 10 LT‐QOL scales. Conclusions: The LT‐QOL is a new, multidimensional instrument that characterizes and quantifies HRQL in lung transplant recipients.
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