Tongue, Jaw, And Lip Muscle Activity And Jaw Movement During Experimental Chewing Efforts In Man
The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the human genioglossus (GG) muscle during chewing efforts is not fully understood. In this study, the EMG activity of the human GG muscle during unilateral gum chewing was illustrated and correlated with the activities in the anterior temporalis (AT), the anterior digastric (DG), and the inferior orbicularis oris (OI) muscles. GG muscle activity was measured with customized surface electrodes, while other muscles were recorded with conventional surface electrodes. EMG activities during tongue displacement and the articulation of long vowels, recorded by the customized electrodes, were consistent with the recordings obtained by fine wire electrodes placed in the GG muscle. Jaw displacement was monitored by means of a kinesiograph with a transducer attached to the mandibular central incisors. Mean normalized GG muscle activity showed an onset in the last one-fifth of the intercuspal phase, gradually increasing during jaw-opening, and at its greatest immediately before the maximum jaw-opening position. It then decreased during jaw-closing and ceased in intercuspation but showed a small rebound in the third fifth of the intercuspal phase. The GG muscle burst showed phase lags with the DG and 01 muscles and an opposite phase with the AT muscle (all P < 0.0001). All correlations were statistically significant (all P < 0.0001, r values between 0.88 and 0.97). The results suggest central coordination of the timing of the activities of the jaw, lip, and tongue muscles in chewing.