Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Striking A Balance In Boundary-Spanning Positions: An Investigation Of Some Unconventional Influences Of Role Stressors And Job Characteristics On Job Outcomes Of Salespeople

J. Singh
Published 1998 · Business

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Most previous studies have focused on the linear effects of role stressors and job characteristics on salespersons’ behavioral (e.g., performance) and psychological (e.g., satisfaction) job outcomes. Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of Yerkes-Dodson law, activation theory, and overstimulation hypothesis, the author examines some unconventional hypotheses of curvilinear and interactional influences of role stressors (i.e., role conflict, ambiguity, and overload) and job characteristics (i.e., autonomy, feedback, task variety, and participation) on five key job outcomes of salespeople. Using data from salespeople across a range of small and large firms, the author finds that curvilinear and/or interactional influences are supported for job tension, turnover intentions, and performance but not for job satisfaction or organizational commitment. The findings specifically indicate support for the overstimulation hypothesis because the dysfunctional effects of role ambiguity tend to be amplified when autonomy, feedback, and task variety are increased. In addition, the results yield evidence of buffering effects because the adverse consequences of role conflict and overload appear to be buffered by task variety and feedback. Overall, the study highlights the inherent trade-offs for sales managers attempting to design jobs with positive job characteristics for salespersons facing high levels of role stressors. The author discusses the implications for theory and practice.
This paper references
10.5465/AMR.1993.9402210153
A Review and an Integration of Research on Job Burnout
Cynthia L. Cordes (1993)
The Stress ofLife. New York: McGraw-Hill
H. 3-30. Selye (1956)
Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Sales Force
Gilbert A Churchill
10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254
The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory.
A. Kluger (1996)
10.1177/0092070393213002
Work alienation of marketing employees: Influence of task, supervisory, and organizational structure factors
S. Ramaswami (1993)
10.1002/CNE.920180503
The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit‐formation
R. Yerkes (1908)
Consequences of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Experienced by Retail Salespeople
A J Dubinsky (1979)
10.1037/0033-2909.106.3.410
Effects of cognitive feedback on performance.
W. Balzer (1989)
Activation Theory and Job Design: Review and Reconceptualization
D G Gardner (1988)
10.1037/0033-2909.93.3.549
Analysis of multiplicative combination rules when the causal variables are measured with error.
J. Busemeyer (1983)
Determinants of Sales Performance: A
Walker (1985)
10.2307/1250806
Role Clarity and the Salesman
James H. Donnelly (1975)
10.5465/255471
Role Perceptions, Satisfaction and Performance Moderated by Organization Level and Participation in Decision Making
R. Schuler (1977)
10.1037/0021-9010.61.1.41
Relationship of stress to individually and organizationally valued states: higher order needs as a moderator.
T. Beehr (1976)
10.1007/BF02723373
Examining product managers’ job satisfaction and performance using selected organizational behavior variables
W. Cummings (1989)
10.1177/002224377901600308
A Path Analysis of Causes and Consequences of Salespeople's Perceptions of Role Clarity
R. K. Teas (1979)
Understanding burnout: Definitional issues in ana-lyzing a complex phenomenon
C. Maslach (1982)
10.1007/978-1-4899-0557-4_12
Endorphins: A Link Between Personality, Stress, Emotions, Immunity, and Disease ?
George S. Solomon (1986)
The Stress of Life (revised)
H Selye (1956)
10.1177/001872678503800502
Relationship of Job Stress to Job Performance: A Study of Managers and Blue-Collar Workers
M. Jamal (1985)
10.1177/002224296603000202
The Salesman's Role Revisited
J. Belasco (1966)
10.1177/002224379503200308
A Parsimonious Estimating Technique for Interaction and Quadratic Latent Variables
R. A. Ping (1995)
Organizational Context and Structure,
J.H.K. Inkson (1970)
10.5465/256858
Job Scope and Stress: Can Job Scope Be Too High?
J. L. Xie (1995)
10.1111/j.1444-0938.1920.tb00216.x
[Preliminary examination].
A. Bulanda-Kordas (1974)
10.2307/2391486
Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations.
J. R. Rizzo (1970)
10.2307/255772
The Measurement of Job Characteristics
H. P. Sims (1976)
10.2307/3172863
Collinearity, power, and interpretation of multiple regression analysis.
Charlotte H. Mason (1991)
10.1037/0033-295X.96.1.84
Arousal and physiological toughness: implications for mental and physical health.
R. Dienstbier (1989)
Understanding Burnout: Definitional Issues in Analyzing a Complex Phenomenon," in Job Stress and Burnout: Research, Theory, and Intervention Perspectives, Striking a Balance
Maslach (1982)
10.1177/002224297503900112
Role Clarity and the Salesman
James H. Donnelly (1975)
10.2307/1252024
Boundary role ambiguity: Facets, determinants, and impacts.
J. Singh (1993)
10.2307/2391622
Organization Context and Structure: An Abbreviated Replication.
J. Inkson (1970)
10.1016/0030-5073(72)90030-X
Role conflict and ambiguity as critical variables in a model of organizational behavior
R. House (1972)
10.1097/00006534-197809000-00026
Stress of Life
H. Selye (1956)
The structure of work: Job design and roles.
D. R. Ilgen (1991)
10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.199
Measurement Error in Psychological Research: Lessons From 26 Research Scenarios
F. Schmidt (1996)
10.1177/002224298705100203
Role Stress among Industrial Buyers: An Integrative Model
Ronald E. Michaels (1987)
The Mechanism ofJob Stress and Strain
J Rp French (1982)
10.1037/0021-9010.73.1.11
Relation of job stressors to affective, health, and performance outcomes: a comparison of multiple data sources.
P. Spector (1988)
Relation of Job Stres
DJ. Dwyer (1988)
10.2307/1251368
The job characteristics of industrial salespersons: Relationship to motivation and satisfaction.
R. Becherer (1982)
10.1037//0033-2909.118.3.405
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN MODERATOR AND QUADRATIC EFFECTS IN MULTIPLE REGRESSION
R. MacCallum (1995)
10.2307/3151883
Behavioral and Psychological Consequences of Boundary Spanning Burnout for Customer Service Representatives
J. Singh (1994)
A Meta-Analysis and Conceptual Critique of Research on Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict in Work Setting,
Jackson (1985)
10.1016/0030-5073(84)90009-6
Job stress and job performance controversy: an empirical assessment.
M. Jamal (1984)
10.1037//0021-9010.78.1.73
Chronic demands and responsivity to challenge.
J. Schaubroeck (1993)
10.1177/002224299606000404
Interdependency, Contracting, and Relational Behavior in Marketing Channels
R. Lusch (1996)
10.1016/0749-5978(85)90020-2
A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings
S. E. Jackson (1985)
10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.438
Method variance as an artifact in self-reported affect and perceptions at work: Myth or significant problem?
P. Spector (1987)
10.1086/209137
Measurement Error and Theory Testing in Consumer Research: An Illustration of the Importance of Construct Validation
Joseph A. Cote (1988)
The environment/organization/person contingency model : a meso approach to the study of organizations
H. Tosi (1992)
10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.538
Understanding, prediction, and control as moderators of the relationships between perceived stress, satisfaction, and psychological well-being.
L. Tetrick (1987)
Interorganizational Role-Set Relations and the Performance and Satisfaction of Salespeople
H O Pruden
On the Use of Polynomial
Edwards (1993)
10.2307/2392498
Job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign
R. Karasek (1979)
10.2307/2391905
A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness
R. House (1971)
10.1037/0021-9010.70.2.280
A Meta-Analysis of the Relation of Job Characteristics to Job Satisfaction
Brian T. Loher (1985)
Stress, Coping, and Social Support Processes: Where are We
Thoits (1995)
10.2307/1251842
Do organizational practices matter in role stress processes? A study of direct and moderating effects for marketing-oriented boundary spanners
J. Singh (1996)
10.1016/0030-5073(66)90003-1
Activation theory and task design
W. E. Scott (1966)
10.5465/AMR.1981.4285726
Perceived Task Characteristics and Employee Performance: A Literature Review
R. Griffin (1981)
10.1177/002224377601300401
Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Salesforce
Gilbert A. Churchill (1976)
10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.73
Chronic demands and responsivity to challenge.
J. Schaubroeck (1993)
Antecedents and Consequences of Salesperson Job Satisfaction: Meta-Analysis and Assessment of Casual Effects
Steven P Brown
10.1177/002224379102800307
Boundary Role Ambiguity in Marketing-Oriented Positions: A Multidimensional, Multifaceted Operationalization
J. Singh (1991)
10.1080/0097840X.1976.9936068
Underload and overload in working life: outline of a multidisciplinary approach.
M. Frankenhaeuser (1976)
10.1037/H0047858
Activation: a neuropsychological dimension.
R. Malmo (1959)
A Conceptual formulation for research on stress
J. Mcgrath (1970)
10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7
Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory.
J. Hackman (1976)
10.1037/H0037335
Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians.
L. Porter (1973)
10.5465/256822
On the Use of Polynomial Regression Equations As An Alternative to Difference Scores in Organizational Research
J. Edwards (1993)
10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238
Comparative fit indexes in structural models.
P. Bentler (1990)
A Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness,
House (1971)
10.1177/002224379403100409
Behavioral and Psychological Consequences of Boundary Spanning Burnout for Customer Service Representatives
J. Singh (1994)
10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.320
A Meta-Analysis of the Correlates of Role Conflict and Ambiguity
C. Fisher (1983)
10.2307/2626957
Stress, coping, and social support processes: where are we? What next?
P. Thoits (1995)
Supervisor Behavior, Role Stress, and the Job
Teas (1983)
10.1177/001872679204500105
A Multivariate Analysis of Curvilinear Relationships Among Job Scope, Work Context Satisfactions, and Affective Outcomes
J. E. Champoux (1992)
10.2307/3151357
The determinants of salesperson performance: A meta-analysis.
Gilbert A. Churchill (1985)
although the development of an integrated approach to jobs and roles represents a large undertaking, we feel that the conceptual payoff from such an endeavor warrants the effort.
o gen (1991)
Organizational behavior and human performance
ScienceDirect (1984)
10.1057/JORS.1994.16
Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions
Larry E. Toothaker (1994)
10.2307/1251506
A Role Stress Model of the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salespersons
Douglas N. Behrman (1984)
10.5465/AMR.1995.9507312921
AN INTEGRATIVE PROCESS MODEL OF COPING WITH JOB LOSS
J. C. Latack (1995)
10.5465/AMBPP.1978.4976486
A Preliminary Examination of Some Complex Job Scope-Growth Need Strength Interactions.
Joseph E. Champoux (1978)
) accounts for people's coping resources, and (3) has unequivocal effects on critical job outcomes. One interesting possibility is the construct of "burnout tendencies
(1985)
10.5465/AMR.1976.4408660
A Theoretical Analysis of the Impact of Task Scope on Employee Performance
D. Schwab (1976)
10.1136/oem.30.4.404
Stress and Distress in Response to Psychosocial Stimuli
D. Broadbent (1973)
10.2307/2091375
Organizational stress : studies in role conflict and ambiguity
R. Kahn (1964)
10.1177/014662168801200205
Residual Centering, Exploratory and Confirmatory Moderator Analysis, and Decomposition of Effects in Path Models Containing Interactions
C. Lance (1988)
10.1016/0030-5073(80)90063-X
Definition and conceptualization of stress in organizations
R. Schuler (1980)
10.2307/3151415
Supervisory Behavior, Role Stress, and the Job Satisfaction of Industrial Salespeople:
R. K. Teas (1983)
Antecedents and consequences of salesperson job satisfaction: Meta-analysis and assessment of
S. P. Brown (1993)
10.1111/J.1744-6570.1987.TB00605.X
THE VALIDITY OF THE JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL: A REVIEW AND META‐ANALYSIS
Y. Fried (1987)
10.2307/2393837
Interorganization Role-Set Relations and the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salesmen
Henry O. Pruden (1972)
10.2307/2286442
Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
J. Cohen (1975)



This paper is referenced by
10.3923/JAS.2015.894.902
Job Characteristics Model on Role of Employee on Sales Performance and Customer Satisfaction of Retail Stores
Sara Yazdanpour (2015)
10.2307/3069371
The Relationship of Internal and External Commitment Foci to Objective Job Performance Measures
M. Siders (2001)
10.1016/J.INDMARMAN.2009.12.010
The impact of management commitment alignment on salespersons' adoption of sales force automation technologies: An empirical investigation
R. Cascio (2010)
Work-related stressors and psychological strain in the sales force:the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
N. Lee (2007)
Subjective fit with organisational culture :Implications for the buffering role of participative control in the stress-strain relationship
C. Newton (2006)
10.1300/J366v03n02_02
The Genesis of Relationships
C. M. Wood (2004)
10.1509/jmkg.71.1.129
Getting Marketers to Invest in Firm-Specific Capital
D. Griffith (2007)
10.1111/J.1559-1816.2011.00733.X
Examining Positive Performance Implications of Role Stressors by the Indirect Influence of Positive Affect: A Study of New Business Managers
J. Wincent (2011)
10.2753/PSS0885-3134280402
Product Innovativeness, Customer Newness, and New Product Performance: A Time-Lagged Examination of the Impact of Salesperson Selling Intentions on New Product Performance
F. Fu (2008)
10.1509/JMKG.75.2.93
Return on Interactivity: The Impact of Online Agents on Newcomer Adjustment:
C. F. Köhler (2011)
10.13023/ETD.2016.300
WHY SUPPLIER INTEGRATION FAILS: A SALESPERSON’S PERSPECTIVE
Jae-Young Oh (2016)
10.1016/J.INDMARMAN.2015.07.017
Psychological contract breach's antecedents and outcomes in salespeople: The roles of psychological climate, job attitudes, and turnover intention☆
Nathaniel N. Hartmann (2015)
10.1007/S11628-017-0340-Y
Alleviating job stress to improve service employee work affect: the influence of rewarding
A. B. Elmadağ (2018)
10.1108/PR-09-2016-0229
Relationships between job characteristics, work engagement, conscientiousness and managers’ turnover intentions
Upasna A. Agarwal (2018)
10.2139/SSRN.2165574
The health care reform as a critical life event: Investigating medical student commitment to medical career goals in a time of health care reform
J. Goodin (2012)
10.1002/JOB.637
Interactions with the public: Bridging job design and emotional labor perspectives
A. Grandey (2010)
A Study of Organizational Role Stress and Organizational Commitment in Organized Retail Sectors
Pretty Bhalla (2013)
10.1509/jmkg.71.1.016
Making Sales Technology Effective
G. Hunter (2007)
10.1177/1534484302238434
Creating Work-Life Balance: A Model of Pluralism across Life Domains
K. Crooker (2002)
10.1016/J.SCAMAN.2008.04.001
The entrepreneur's role stressors and proclivity for a venture withdrawal
J. Wincent (2008)
10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2008.06.019
Firm-employee relationship strength--A conceptual model
C. Herington (2009)
10.1016/J.TRE.2014.01.006
Linking formal controls to motor carrier performance: Curvilinear and interaction effects
J. Saldanha (2014)
10.5897/AJBM.9000334
Impact of role ambiguity and role conflict on employee creativity
Yung-Tai Tang (2010)
10.1108/ER-12-2014-0150
Influence of organizational rewards on organizational commitment and turnover intentions
Sajjad Nazir (2016)
10.1177/095207670602100105
Towards Developing an Organisational Commitment - Public Service Motivation Model for the Maltese Public Service Employees
E. Camilleri (2006)
10.1109/SOLI.2008.4686427
The mediating role of job stress in predicting retail banking employees' turnover intentions in Taiwan
M. Chen (2008)
10.1016/J.JOM.2009.04.001
Do buyer cooperative actions matter under relational stress? Evidence from Japanese and U.S. assemblers in the U.S. automotive industry
C. Zhang (2009)
Moderating Roles of Job Characteristics in the Relationship between Job Stress and Job Involvement among Nurses
Ejike A. Okonkwo (2019)
10.1037/e534962006-001
Relationships between Organizational Commitment, Core Job Characteristics, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in United States Air Force Organizations
Dawn L Banks (2012)
10.2753/PSS0885-3134260302
The Role of Ethical Climate on Salesperson’s Role Stress, Job Attitudes, Turnover Intention, and Job Performance
F. Jaramillo (2006)
Grandparent foster caregiver characteristics, differences between foster caregivers, and predictors of satisfaction with social support
Alicia D. Simmons (2005)
10.1509/jmkg.66.2.61.18474
Role Stress and Effectiveness in Horizontal Alliances
A. Nygaard (2002)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar