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A Biomechanical Comparison Of Four Different Cementless Press-fit Stems Used In Revision Surgery For Total Knee Replacements

R. Zdero, K. Saidi, Stephanie A. Mason, E. Schemitsch, D. Naudie
Published 2012 · Medicine, Materials Science

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Few biomechanical studies exist on femoral cementless press-fit stems for revision total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical quality of the femur–stem interface for a series of commercially available press-fit stems, because this interface may be a ‘weak link’ which could fail earlier than the femur–TKR bond itself. Also, the femur–stem interface may become particularly critical if distal femur bone degeneration, which may necessitate or follow revision TKR, ever weakens the femur–TKR bond itself. The authors implanted five synthetic femurs each with a Sigma Short Stem (SSS), Sigma Long Stem (SLS), Genesis II Short Stem (GSS), or Genesis II Long Stem (GLS). Axial stiffness, lateral stiffness, ‘offset load’ torsional stiffness, and ‘offset load’ torsional strength were measured with a mechanical testing system using displacement control. Axial (range = 1047–1461 N/mm, p = 0.106), lateral (range = 415–462 N/mm, p = 0.297), and torsional (range = 115–139 N/mm, p > 0.055) stiffnesses were not different between groups. The SSS had higher torsional strength (863 N) than the other stems (range = 167–197 N, p < 0.001). Torsional failure occurred by femoral ‘spin’ around the stem’s long axis. There was poor linear correlation between the femur–stem interface area versus axial stiffness (R = 0.38) and torsional stiffness (R = 0.38), and there was a moderate linear correlation versus torsional strength (R = 0.55). Yet, there was a high inverse linear correlation between interfacial surface area versus lateral stiffness (R = 0.79), although this did not result in a statistical difference between stem groups (p = 0.297). These press-fit stems provide equivalent stability, except that the SSS has greater torsional strength.
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