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Comparative Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Of Cobalt (II, III) Oxide, Iron (III) Oxide, Silicon Dioxide, And Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles On Human Lymphocytes In Vitro

S Rajiv, J Jerobin, V Saranya, M Nainawat, A Sharma, P Makwana, C Gayathri, L Bharath, M Singh, M Kumar, A Mukherjee, N Chandrasekaran

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Despite the extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in various fields, adequate knowledge of human health risk and potential toxicity is still lacking. The human lymphocytes play a major role in the immune system, and it can alter the antioxidant level when exposed to NPs. Identification of the hazardous NPs was done using in vitro toxicity tests and this study mainly focuses on the comparative in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four different NPs including cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on human lymphocytes. The Co3O4 NPs showed decrease in cellular viability and increase in cell membrane damage followed by Fe2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of exposure to human lymphocytes. The oxidative stress was evidenced in human lymphocytes by the induction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. The Al2O3 NPs showed the least DNA damage when compared with all the other NPs. Chromosomal aberration was observed at 100 µg/ml when exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs. The alteration in the level of antioxidant caused DNA damage and chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes.