Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Self-ratings Of ADHD Symptoms In Adults I: Factor Structure And Normative Data

C. Conners, D. Erhardt, J. Epstein, J. Parker, G. Sitarenios, E. Sparrow
Published 1999 · Psychology

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
Background: Although well-standardized behavior rating scales are routinely utilized in children for evaluations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), comparable measures for adults with ADHD symptomatology have been sparse. Based on current literature and clinical experience, nine aspects of adult ADHD functioning provided initial hypotheses regarding factor structure and scale items for a new scale for self-rating of symptoms by adults suspected of having ADHD. Method: A normative sample of 839 subjects and a clinical sample of 167 subjects completed ratings of an initial pool of 93 items. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a four-factor structure involving 42 items. These factors include Inattention/Cognitive Problems, Hyperactivity/Restlessness, Impulsivity/Emotional Lability, and Problems with Self-Concept. Conclusion: The scale appears to cover the core features of ADHD as seen in children and adolescents, while adding content unique to adult expression of the ADHD syndrome. The new scale (Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale, or CAARS) may provide a useful dimensional measurement system for research and clinical applications.
This paper references
Out of the fog
J. C. Lincoln (1940)
10.1016/S0022-3476(57)80257-1
Hyperkinetic behavior syndrome in children.
M. Laufer (1957)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.1981.01780290083009
Attention deficit disorder ('minimal brain dysfunction') in adults. A replication study of diagnosis and drug treatment.
P. Wender (1981)
10.1207/s15327906mbr1802_5
Factor Comparability As A Means Of Determining The Number Of Factors And Their Rotation.
J. Everett (1983)
10.1007/BF02294170
The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis
J. Anderson (1984)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.1985.01790330017002
Hyperactive boys almost grown up. I. Psychiatric status.
R. Gittelman (1985)
Discussions arising from: Cloninger, CR. A. unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states.
Cloninger Cr (1987)
10.1037/0022-006X.55.4.584
Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research.
D. Cole (1987)
10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.391
Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis : The effect of sample size
H. Marsh (1988)
EQS : structural equations program manual
P. Bentler (1989)
10.2307/1130934
Externalizing Behavior Disorders, Situational Generality, and the Type A Behavior Pattern.
C. Whalen (1989)
10.1016/0010-440X(90)90026-O
A clinical and demographic profile of a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, residual state.
W. O. Shekim (1990)
10.1111/J.1467-8624.1990.TB02809.X
A global developmental trend in cognitive processing speed.
S. Hale (1990)
10.1007/BF00919086
Effects of background anger, provocation, and methylphenidate on emotional arousal and aggressive responding in attention-deficit hyperactivity disordered boys with and without concurrent aggressiveness
W. Pelham (1991)
10.1016/S0890-8567(10)80009-7
Young adult mental status of hyperactive boys and their brothers: a prospective follow-up study.
S. Mannuzza (1991)
10.1097/00004583-199105000-00005
Long-term outcome of hyperactive children: a review.
R. Klein (1991)
10.1176/AJP.150.12.1792
Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
J. Biederman (1993)
Hyperactive Children Grown Up: ADHD in Children, Adolescents, and Adults
G. Weiss (1993)
10.4135/9781483326740
Attention Deficits and Hyperactivity in Children
S. Hinshaw (1993)
10.1097/00004583-199309000-00027
Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents: concurrent validity in ADHD children.
J. Biederman (1993)
10.1176/AJP.150.6.885
The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
M. Ward (1993)
10.1001/ARCHPSYC.1993.01820190067007
Adult outcome of hyperactive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status.
S. Mannuzza (1993)
10.1177/019874299401900205
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment
R. Barkley (1994)
10.1176/AJP.151.11.1673
DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents.
B. Lahey (1994)
10.1176/AJP.151.5.633
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.
D. Shaffer (1994)
10.1016/0165-1781(94)90092-2
Gender differences in a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
J. Biederman (1994)
Taking Charge of ADHD
R. Barkley (1995)
10.2466/pr0.1995.77.3.751
Retrospective Self-Reported Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Reliability of the Wender Utah Rating Scale
E. Rossini (1995)
10.1007/BF01447559
Is self-esteem an important outcome in hyperactive children?
C. Slomkowski (1995)
10.1007/BF01441570
Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD
E. Carte (1996)
10.1177/108705479600100104
Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD
R. Barkley (1996)
10.1177/108705479600100303
Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis
K. Murphy (1996)
Conners' rating scales-revised : technical manual
C. Conners (1997)
10.1023/A:1022637815797
A New Self-Report Scale for Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Factor Structure, Reliability, Validity, and Diagnostic Sensitivity
C. Conners (1997)
10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65
Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD.
R. Barkley (1997)
10.1037/0894-4105.11.4.467
Asymmetrical hemispheric control of visual-spatial attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
J. N. Epstein (1997)
10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70039-3
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.
P. Wender (1998)
10.1023/A:1022606501530
Revision and Restandardization of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): Factor Structure, Reliability, and Criterion Validity
C. Conners (1998)
10.1023/A:1022602400621
The Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R): Factor Structure, Reliability, and Criterion Validity
C. Conners (1998)
10.1097/00004583-199803000-00016
Diagnostic continuity between child and adolescent ADHD: findings from a longitudinal clinical sample.
J. Biederman (1998)
10.1076/CLIN.12.2.155.2000
Continuous Performance Test Results of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
J. Epstein (1998)
10.1007/springerreference_179816
Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales
R. L. Mandal (2000)



This paper is referenced by
10.1007/s00787-021-01809-3
Amygdala reactivity and ventromedial prefrontal cortex coupling in the processing of emotional face stimuli in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Tammo Viering (2021)
10.3390/SU13084564
The Role of Self- and Informant-Reports on Symptoms and Impairments in the Clinical Evaluation of Adult ADHD
Nana Guo (2021)
10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102670
A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of prefrontal cortex deep transcranial magnetic stimulation efficacy in adults with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: A double blind, randomized clinical trial
M. Bleich-Cohen (2021)
10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113638
Association of ADHD and hypersexuality and paraphilias
L. Soldati (2021)
10.1186/s12888-021-03223-0
Prevalence of criminal convictions in Norwegian adult ADHD outpatients and associations with ADHD symptom severity and emotional dysregulation
Espen Anker (2021)
10.1080/13803395.2021.1940104
Metacognition, psychopathology and daily functioning in adult ADHD
Marah Butzbach (2021)
10.1093/brain/awab142
Locus coeruleus integrity and the effect of atomoxetine on response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease
C. O’Callaghan (2021)
10.1038/s41598-020-75868-y
Use of machine learning to classify adult ADHD and other conditions based on the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales
H. Christiansen (2020)
Title Associations between ADHD symptom remission and white matter microstructure : a longitudinal analysis Running title ADHD symptom remission and white matter
Anne E. M. Leenders (2020)
10.1101/2020.09.24.311654
Associations between ADHD symptom remission and white matter microstructure: a longitudinal analysis
A. Leenders (2020)
10.1101/787713
White matter microstructure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic tractography study in 654 individuals
C. Damatac (2020)
10.1177/0734282919842030
Reliability, Validity, Factor Structure, and Measurement Invariance of the Japanese Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)
Fumio Someki (2020)
10.1002/jclp.23088
Development and psychometric properties of the ADHD-SCL-90-R screening scale for adult ADHD.
Karen Abbass (2020)
10.1177/1087054720978553
Birds of a Feather: An Examination of ADHD Symptoms and Associated Concerns in Partners of Adults with ADHD.
C. Steele (2020)
University of Birmingham Associations between inattention and impulsivity ADHD symptoms and disordered eating risk in a community sample of young adults
E. Martin (2020)
10.1080/00223891.2020.1769113
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire: Factor Structure Based on CFA and ESEM, and Associations with ADHD
R. Gomez (2020)
10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.03.019
Sexual Function, Sexual Dysfunctions, and ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review.
L. Soldati (2020)
10.1038/s41386-020-00896-1
Effects of substance misuse on reward-processing in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
M. Paraskevopoulou (2020)
10.1017/S0033291720004638
Associations between inattention and impulsivity ADHD symptoms and disordered eating risk in a community sample of young adults.
E. Martin (2020)
10.3233/jnd-200555
Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy Females with Dystrophinopathy Conference, Orlando, Florida June 26 - June 27, 2019.
S. Apkon (2020)
10.29252/jcmh.7.2.11
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Individual and Group Play Therapy on Coping Behaviors in Primary School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Elahe Nayebi (2020)
10.1177/1087054720951865
Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effectiveness of a New Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for College Students with ADHD.
M. Solanto (2020)
10.1016/j.envint.2020.106036
Gestational and childhood exposure to phthalates and child behavior.
N. Li (2020)
10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102206
Alleviation of ADHD symptoms by non-invasive right prefrontal stimulation is correlated with EEG activity
U. Alyagon (2020)
10.1159/000509147
Effects of Substance Misuse and Family History of Substance Use Disorder on Delay Discounting in Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
M. Paraskevopoulou (2020)
Maternal Personality Moderates MTA Treatment Response 1 Maternal Personality Traits Moderate Treatment Response in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
G. P. Algorta (2020)
10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.07.015
White Matter Microstructure in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Tractography Study in 654 Individuals.
C. Damatac (2020)
10.1016/j.cortex.2020.03.027
Learning volition: A longitudinal study of developing intentional awareness in Tourette syndrome
T. Mainka (2020)
10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.156
Negative memory bias as a transdiagnostic cognitive marker for depression symptom severity.
F. Duyser (2020)
10.1177/1087054718765672
The Prevalence of “Late-Onset” ADHD in a Clinically Referred Adult Sample
M. Solanto (2019)
10.1101/787713
Hyperactivity-impulsivity in ADHD is associated with white matter microstructure in the cingulum’s angular bundle
C. Damatac (2019)
10.1007/s40429-019-00279-7
A Systematic Review of the Co-occurrence of Gaming Disorder and Other Potentially Addictive Behaviors
Tyrone L. Burleigh (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar