A Naturally Occurring Tyr143HisαIIb Mutation Abolishes αIIbβ3 Function For Soluble Ligands But Retains Its Ability For Mediating Cell Adhesion And Clot Retraction: Comparison With Other Mutations Causing Ligand-binding Defects
The molecular basis for the interaction between a prototypic non–I-domain integrin, αIIbβ3, and its ligands remains to be determined. In this study, we have characterized a novel missense mutation (Tyr143His) in αIIb associated with a variant of Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Osaka-12 platelets expressed a substantial amount of αIIbβ3(36%-41% of control) but failed to bind soluble ligands, including a high-affinity αIIbβ3-specific peptidomimetic antagonist. Sequence analysis revealed that Osaka-12 is a compound heterozygote for a single 521T>C substitution leading to a Tyr143His substitution in αIIb and for the null expression of αIIb mRNA from the maternal allele. Given that Tyr143 is located in the W3 4-1 loop of the β-propeller domain of αIIb, we examined the effects of Tyr143His or Tyr143Ala substitution on the expression and function of αIIbβ3 and compared them with KO (Arg-Thr insertion between 160 and 161 residues of αIIb) and with the Asp163Ala mutation located in the same loop by using 293 cells. Each of them abolished the binding function of αIIbβ3 for soluble ligands without disturbing αIIbβ3 expression. Because immobilized fibrinogen and fibrin are higher affinity/avidity ligands for αIIbβ3, we performed cell adhesion and clot retraction assays. In sharp contrast to KO mutation and Asp163AlaαIIbβ3, Tyr143HisαIIbβ3-expressing cells still had some ability for cell adhesion and clot retraction. Thus, the functional defect induced by Tyr143HisαIIb is likely caused by its allosteric effect rather than by a defect in the ligand-binding site itself. These detailed structure–function analyses provide better understanding of the ligand-binding sites in integrins.