Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Cardiotoxicity Of Anthracycline Agents For The Treatment Of Cancer: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis Of Randomised Controlled Trials

L. Smith, V. Cornelius, C. Plummer, G. Levitt, M. Verrill, P. Canney, A. Jones
Published 2010 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
BackgroundWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the risk of early and late cardiotoxicity of anthracycline agents in patients treated for breast or ovarian cancer, lymphoma, myeloma or sarcoma.MethodsRandomized controlled trials were sought using comprehensive searches of electronic databases in June 2008. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also scanned for additional articles. Outcomes investigated were early or late clinical and sub-clinical cardiotoxicity. Trial quality was assessed, and data were pooled through meta-analysis where appropriate.ResultsFifty-five published RCTs were included; the majority were on women with advanced breast cancer. A significantly greater risk of clinical cardiotoxicity was found with anthracycline compared with non-anthracycline regimens (OR 5.43 95% confidence interval: 2.34, 12.62), anthracycline versus mitoxantrone (OR 2.88 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 6.44), and bolus versus continuous anthracycline infusions (OR 4.13 95% confidence interval: 1.75, 9.72). Risk of clinical cardiotoxicity was significantly lower with epirubicin versus doxorubicin (OR 0.39 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.78), liposomal versus non-liposomal doxorubicin (OR 0.18 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.38) and with a concomitant cardioprotective agent (OR 0.21 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.33). No statistical heterogeneity was found for these pooled analyses. A similar pattern of results were found for subclinical cardiotoxicity; with risk significantly greater with anthracycline containing regimens and bolus administration; and significantly lower risk with epirubicin, liposomal doxorubicin versus doxorubicin but not epirubicin, and with concomitant use of a cardioprotective agent. Low to moderate statistical heterogeneity was found for two of the five pooled analyses, perhaps due to the different criteria used for reduction in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. Meta-analyses of any cardiotoxicity (clinical and subclinical) showed moderate to high statistical heterogeneity for four of five pooled analyses; criteria for any cardiotoxic event differed between studies. Nonetheless the pattern of results was similar to those for clinical or subclinical cardiotoxicity described above.ConclusionsEvidence is not sufficiently robust to support clear evidence-based recommendations on different anthracycline treatment regimens, or for routine use of cardiac protective agents or liposomal formulations. There is a need to improve cardiac monitoring in oncology trials.
This paper references
10.1002/SIM.2528
Much ado about nothing: a comparison of the performance of meta-analytical methods with rare events.
Michael J Bradburn (2007)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDJ134
Multicenter randomized phase III study of the cardioprotective effect of dexrazoxane (Cardioxane) in advanced/metastatic breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
M. Marty (2006)
10.1016/j.ijsu.2010.02.007
Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.
D. Moher (2010)
10.1200/JCO.1988.6.6.976
Phase III randomized study of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide v fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in advanced breast cancer: an Italian multicentre trial.
G. Ambrosini (1988)
10.1159/000218287
Prognostic Subgroups: The Key Factor for Treatment Outcome in Metastatic Breast Cancer
E. Heidemann (1993)
10.1177/0897190008314776
A Review of the Cardiovascular Effects of Oncology Agents
Bradi L. Frei (2008)
10.1016/0197-2456(86)90046-2
Meta-analysis in clinical trials.
R. Dersimonian (1986)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDH393
Phase III trial of liposomal doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide compared with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
S. Chan (2004)
[Randomized trial comparing mitoxantrone with adriamycin in advanced breast cancer].
J. Follezou (1987)
10.1200/JCO.1985.3.6.818
A prospective randomized comparison of epirubicin and doxorubicin in patients with advanced breast cancer.
K. K. Jain (1985)
10.1002/14651858.cd005008.pub2
Different dosage schedules for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.
E. C. van Dalen (2006)
10.1200/JCO.1991.9.12.2148
A randomized comparison of single-agent doxorubicin and epirubicin as first-line cytotoxic therapy in advanced breast cancer.
D. Perez (1991)
10.1002/MPO.2950140107
Treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: a randomised trial comparing adriamycin or 4'epi-adriamycin in combination with cisplatin and cyclophosphamide.
W. Bezwoda (1986)
10.1200/JCO.1992.10.1.117
ICRF-187 permits longer treatment with doxorubicin in women with breast cancer.
J. Speyer (1992)
LCME: Cardioprotective interventions for cancer patients receiving anthracyclines. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008:CD003917
E Van Dalen (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2007.10.9777
American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical evidence review on the ongoing care of adult cancer survivors: cardiac and pulmonary late effects.
J. Carver (2007)
Feuilhade F: Randomized trial comparing mitoxantrone with adriamycin in advanced breast cancer
JY Follezou (1987)
10.1200/JCO.2007.14.1242
Doxorubicin, cardiac risk factors, and cardiac toxicity in elderly patients with diffuse B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
D. Hershman (2008)
10.1097/00043426-199124000-00010
Comparative effectiveness of two combined modality regimens in the treatment of surgical stage III Hodgkin's disease in children. An 8-year follow-up study by the Pediatric Oncology Group.
M. Sullivan (1991)
10.1200/JCO.1988.6.10.1611
A randomized multicenter trial comparing mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil in the therapy of metastatic breast carcinoma.
J. Bennett (1988)
10.1080/02841860118182
A systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in Hodgkin's disease.
L. Brandt (2001)
10.1002/14651858.CD003917.pub4
Cardioprotective interventions for cancer patients receiving anthracyclines.
E. C. van Dalen (2011)
10.1002/1097-0142(19900215)65:4<870::AID-CNCR2820650407>3.0.CO;2-D
Reduced cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin by a 6‐hour infusion regimen. A prospective randomized evaluation
J. Shapira (1990)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDI181
First-line gemcitabine versus epirubicin in postmenopausal women aged 60 or older with metastatic breast cancer: a multicenter, randomized, phase III study.
O. Feher (2005)
10.2165/00003495-200565070-00008
Dexrazoxane : a review of its use for cardioprotection during anthracycline chemotherapy.
R. Cvetković (2005)
10.1023/A:1006387801960
Phase III trial of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, fluorouracil (CEF) versus cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, fluorouracil (CNF) in women with metastatic breast cancer
E. Esteban (2004)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDG260
Doxorubicin in combination with fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide (i.v. FAC regimen, day 1, 21) versus methotrexate in combination with fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide (i.v. CMF regimen, day 1, 21) as adjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer: a study by the GEICAM group.
M. Martín (2003)
10.1002/14651858.CD003917.pub3
Cardioprotective interventions for cancer patients receiving anthracyclines.
E. C. van Dalen (2008)
10.1002/14651858.cd003917.pub2
Cardioprotective interventions for cancer patients receiving anthracyclines.
E. C. van Dalen (2005)
10.1097/00000421-199102000-00009
Weekly Epirubicin Versus Doxorubicin as Second Line Therapy in Advanced Breast Cancer A Randomized Clinical Trial
G. Gasparini (1991)
10.1002/14651858.CD006165.pub3
Interventions for latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in adults.
S. Brophy (2011)
10.1016/0020-7292(88)90008-2
Randomised trial comparing combinations of cyclophosphamide and cisplatin without or with doxorubicin or 4′‐epi‐doxorubicin in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer
Z. Hernádi (1988)
10.1200/JCO.1996.14.2.362
Randomized trial of the cardioprotective agent ICRF-187 in pediatric sarcoma patients treated with doxorubicin.
L. Wexler (1996)
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.576850
NAD(P)H Oxidase and Multidrug Resistance Protein Genetic Polymorphisms Are Associated With Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity
L. Wojnowski (2005)
10.1002/1097-0142(19910915)68:6<1221::AID-CNCR2820680607>3.0.CO;2-R
A prospective randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with bolus versus continuous infusion of doxorubicin in patients with high‐grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma and an analysis of prognostic factors
E. Casper (1991)
Prevention of adriamycininduced cardiotoxicity by prenylamine: a pilot double blind study
J Milei (1987)
10.1136/bmj.b4606
Cardiac outcomes in a cohort of adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: retrospective analysis of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort
D. Mulrooney (2009)
NAD(P)H oxidase and multidrug resistance protein genetic polymorphisms are associated with doxorubicininduced cardiotoxicity
L Wojnowski (2005)
10.1080/08880010701451244
TOXICITY PREVENTION WITH AMIFOSTINE IN PEDIATRIC OSTEOSARCOMA PATIENTS TREATED WITH CISPLATIN AND DOXORUBICIN
S. Gallegos-Castoreña (2007)
Frequency and risk factors of subclinical cardiotoxicity after anthracycline therapy in children: a systematic review (Structured abstract)
LC Kremer (2002)
10.1200/JCO.1989.7.5.560
Randomized clinical trial comparing mitoxantrone with doxorubicin in previously treated patients with metastatic breast cancer.
I. C. Henderson (1989)
10.1200/JCO.1996.14.12.3112
Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate cardioprotection of dexrazoxane versus no cardioprotection in women receiving epirubicin chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer.
M. Venturini (1996)
10.1007/s11864-008-0054-4
Caring for Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer
D. Mulrooney (2008)
Phase II study of doxorubicin versus epirubicin in advanced breast cancer.
C. Brambilla (1986)
10.1002/14651858.CD005006.pub3
Different anthracycline derivates for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients.
E. C. van Dalen (2006)
10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557
Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses
J. Higgins (2003)
10.1016/S0936-6555(96)80079-3
Comparison of mitozantrone and epirubicin in advanced breast cancer.
A. Cook (1996)
10.1200/JCO.1998.16.1.86
Randomized prospective clinical trial of high-dose epirubicin and dexrazoxane in patients with advanced breast cancer and soft tissue sarcomas.
M. López (1998)
editors: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2
JPT Higgins (2009)
10.1200/JCO.2005.02.5841
Chemotherapy and cardiotoxicity in older breast cancer patients: a population-based study.
J. Doyle (2005)
10.1016/0959-8049(95)00489-0
Randomised phase II study of epirubicin-vindesine versus mitoxantrone-vindesine in metastatic breast cancer.
H. Hausmaninger (1995)
10.1093/JNCI/83.13.926
Phase III comparison of doxorubicin and dacarbazine given by bolus versus infusion in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas: a Southwest Oncology Group study.
M. Zalupski (1991)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6603562
Clinical and cost-effectiveness of cardioprotection against the toxic effects of anthracyclines given to children with cancer: a systematic review
J. Bryant (2007)
10.1200/JCO.2006.10.4976
Congestive heart failure in older women treated with adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy for breast cancer.
M. Pinder (2007)
10.1097/00000421-198902000-00014
A Comparative Study of Doxorubicin and Epirubicin in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer
G. Hortobagyi (1989)
10.1002/cncr.21662
Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone provide significant reduction in toxicity compared with doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
R. Rifkin (2006)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.ANNONC.A058153
Results of a randomized study of previously-untreated intermediate and high grade lymphoma using CHOP versus CNOP.
S. Pavlovsky (1992)
10.3324/%X
Efficacy of two different ProMACE-CytaBOM derived regimens in advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Final report of a multicenter trial conducted by GISL.
M. Federico (1998)
10.7326/0003-4819-91-5-710
Risk factors for doxorubicin-induced congestive heart failure.
D. V. Von Hoff (1979)
10.1200/JCO.2001.19.5.1444
Reduced cardiotoxicity and preserved antitumor efficacy of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide compared with conventional doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in a randomized, multicenter trial of metastatic breast cancer.
G. Batist (2001)
Ewer MS: Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management
E T Yeh (2004)
Lansimies E: Cardiotoxicity of epirubicin and doxorubicin: a double-blind randomized study
R Lahtinen (1991)
10.1111/j.1600-0609.1991.tb01543.x
Cardiotoxicity of epirubicin and doxorubicin: A double‐blind randomized study
R. Lahtinen (1991)
10.1038/bjc.1986.81
A trial of chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma (a report to the Medical Research Council by their Working Party on Bone Sarcoma.
A. R. T. T. M. R. C. B. T. T. Sarcoma (1986)
10.1200/JCO.1997.15.4.1318
Cardioprotection with dexrazoxane for doxorubicin-containing therapy in advanced breast cancer.
S. Swain (1997)
Phase III comparative trial (m-BACOD v m-BNCOD) in the treatment of stage II to IV non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with intermediate- or high-grade histology.
F. Gherlinzoni (1990)
Much ado about nothing: a comparison of the performance of meta-analytical methods with rare
MJ Bradburn (2007)
10.1200/JCO.2005.09.423
Randomized trial comparing cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer: update of National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Trial MA5.
M. Levine (2005)
Clinical spectrum of anthracycline antibiotic cardiotoxicity.
M. Bristow (1978)
10.1002/MPO.1226
Comparison of long-term outcome of children and adolescents with disseminated non-lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with COMP or daunomycin-COMP: A report from the Children's Cancer Group.
R. Sposto (2001)
10.1200/jco.1988.6.4.679
A prospective randomized phase III trial comparing combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, and either doxorubicin or epirubicin. French Epirubicin Study Group.
(1988)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDG754
EUROCARE-3: survival of cancer patients diagnosed 1990-94--results and commentary.
M. Sant (2003)
Drug-induced cardiovascular disorders.
S. Mukherjee (1994)
10.1093/jnci/djn310
Cause-specific late mortality among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
A. Mertens (2008)
10.1002/14651858.CD005008.pub3
Different dosage schedules for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.
Elvira C van Dalen (2009)
Clinical and costeffectiveness of cardioprotection against the toxic effects of anthracyclines given to children with cancer: A systematic review
J Bryant (2007)
10.2165/00002018-200022040-00002
Cardiotoxicity of Chemotherapeutic Agents
V. Pai (2000)
10.1161/01.RES.68.6.1560
Cardiomyopathy of the aging human heart. Myocyte loss and reactive cellular hypertrophy.
G. Olivetti (1991)
Feuilhade F: Randomized trial comparing mitoxantrone with adriamycin in advanced breast cancer
JY Follezou (1987)
10.1016/S0936-6555(05)80851-9
A comparison of doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitozantrone as single agents in advanced breast carcinoma.
P. Lawton (1993)
10.1002/MPO.2950220304
Randomized study for the treatment of adult advanced Hodgkin's disease: epirubicin, vinblastine, bleomycin, and dacarbazine (EVBD) versus mitoxantrone, vinblastine, bleomycin, and dacarbazine (MVBD).
A. Avilés (1994)
10.1200/JCO.2005.05.827
Type II chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction: time to recognize a new entity.
M. Ewer (2005)
10.1007/BF00666487
A phase III randomized trial of cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, and 5-fluorouracil (CNF) versus cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) in patients with metastatic breast cancer
M. C. Alonso (2004)
10.1200/JCO.2001.19.4.943
Dose-intensive epirubicin-based chemotherapy is superior to an intensive intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil regimen in metastatic breast cancer: a randomized multinational study.
S. Ackland (2001)
May ; 10 ( 5 ) : 867 ]
SM Swain (1992)
10.1002/9781119536604
Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions
Michele Tarsilla (2010)
cancer and soft tissue sarcomas
(1998)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6601904
Cardiac abnormalities 15 years and more after adriamycin therapy in 229 childhood survivors of a solid tumour at the Institut Gustave Roussy
F. Pein (2004)
Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents: incidence, treatment and prevention.
V. Pai (2000)
BMC Cancer
Leila Mohammadi (2001)
10.1016/j.ejca.2008.11.018
EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995-1999. Results and commentary.
M. Sant (2009)
10.1002/14651858.CD005006.pub4
Different anthracycline derivates for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients.
E. C. van Dalen (2010)
10.1136/bmj.323.7303.42
Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials
P. Jüni (2001)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDF167
Frequency and risk factors of subclinical cardiotoxicity after anthracycline therapy in children: a systematic review.
L. Kremer (2002)
A randomized controlled trial assessing the prevention of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy by N-acetylcysteine.
C. Myers (1983)
10.1038/bjc.1998.375
Doxorubicin vs epirubicin, report of a second-line randomized phase II/III study in advanced breast cancer. EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group.
M. Bontenbal (1998)
10.3109/10428199509107906
Phase III comparative trial using CHOP vs CIOP in the treatment of advanced intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
P. Zinzani (1995)
10.1089/CDD.1987.4.129
Prevention of adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity by prenylamine: a pilot double blind study.
J. Milei (1987)
10.1007/s00432-005-0054-8
Effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy and a combination with l-carnitine on oxidative metabolism in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma
R. Waldner (2005)
10.3109/07357909109021321
Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, and either epirubicin or mitoxantrone: a comparative randomized multicenter study in metastatic breast carcinoma.
P. Periti (1991)
10.1200/JCO.1997.15.5.1897
Cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil combined with mitoxantrone versus doxorubicin for breast cancer: superiority of doxorubicin.
D. Stewart (1997)
10.1093/ANNONC/MDH097
Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
M. O'Brien (2004)
EUROCARE Working Group: EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995-1999
M Sant (2009)
10.1016/J.JACC.2006.07.052
Protective effects of carvedilol against anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy.
N. Kalay (2006)
Randomized prospective clinical trial of highdose epirubicin and dexrazoxane in patients with advanced breast Smith et al
M Lopez (2010)
Melphalan-prednisone versus alternating combination VAD/MP or VND/MP as primary therapy for multiple myeloma: final analysis of a randomized clinical study.
M. Cavo (2002)
10.1161/01.CIR.0000133187.74800.B9
Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management.
E. T. Yeh (2004)
10.1097/00000421-199204000-00007
Randomized Comparison of Cisplatin plus Epirubicin or Doxorubicin for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma: A Multicenter Trial
H. Homesley (1992)
10.1038/BJC.1986.64
Rising incidence of lymphoid malignancies--true or false?
N. Barnes (1986)
(11) DRUG-INDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS
F. Maclean (1999)
10.1002/cncr.10201
Liposome‐encapsulated doxorubicin compared with conventional doxorubicin in a randomized multicenter trial as first‐line therapy of metastatic breast carcinoma
L. Harris (2002)
Groupmedline TDS: Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin compared with conventional doxorubicin in a randomized multicenter trial as first-line therapy of metastatic breast carcinoma
L Harris (2002)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.blre.2015.11.001
Maximizing anthracycline tolerability in hematologic malignancies: Treat to each heart's content.
G. H. Oliveira (2016)
10.28933/AJCRAR-2018-10-0501
Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity: Preliminary report from a tertiary cancer centre in India
Suwarna Tambade Mbbs (2018)
Recent Progress in Metastatic Breast Cancer : Focus on Cytotoxic Therapy Medical Experts :
M. Jahanzeb (2013)
10.1016/j.echo.2018.11.015
Subcostal View‐Based Longitudinal Strain in Patients With Breast Cancer Is an Alternative to Conventional Apical View‐Based Longitudinal Strain
Sarah Chuzi (2019)
10.1152/ajpregu.00299.2019
Doxorubicin-Induced Oxidative Stress Differentially Regulates Proteolytic Signaling in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle.
Ryan N Montalvo (2019)
10.1016/j.ctrv.2013.10.005
Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Jan Kroon (2014)
10.1002/cam4.2136
A phase II clinical study of 13‐deoxy, 5‐iminodoxorubicin (GPX‐150) with metastatic and unresectable soft tissue sarcoma
B. V. Van Tine (2019)
10.1007/978-3-319-15808-2_2
Physiopathology and Toxic Heart Effects of Chemotherapy Drugs
Riccardo Asteggiano (2015)
10.1007/978-3-319-40236-9_17
Cardiotoxicity in Long-Term Survivors
Paolo Tralongo (2017)
Breast cancer metastatic dormancy and emergence, a role for adjuvant statin therapy
Colin H. Beckwitt (2018)
10.1097/01893697-201533020-00005
Oncology Section EDGE Task Force Breast Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Clinical Measures of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Tests
Jacqueline S. Drouin (2015)
10.1111/jcmm.14466
Yellow Wine Polyphenolic Compounds prevents Doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity through activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway
H. Lin (2019)
10.1007/s00277-017-3160-1
Incidence of interstitial pneumonitis in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving immunochemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and rituximab
Ting Zhou (2017)
10.1016/j.jaccao.2020.09.006
Genetics of Anthracycline Cardiomyopathy in Cancer Survivors
S. Bhatia (2020)
10.2967/jnumed.110.082784
Scintigraphic Techniques for Early Detection of Cancer Treatment–Induced Cardiotoxicity
L. de Geus-Oei (2011)
10.14312/2052-4994.2014-6
Adjuvant concurrent docetaxel, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in breast cancer: The TEC regimen. A retrospective analysis
S. Galdy (2014)
A CME-CERTIFIED ACTIVITY Recent Progress in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Focus on Cytotoxic Therapy
M. Jahanzeb (2013)
10.3892/ol.2014.2218
Combined effect of papuamine and doxorubicin in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells
S. Kanno (2014)
10.3390/cells9041001
Cardiotoxicity and Heart Failure: Lessons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Anticancer Drugs
A. Sachinidis (2020)
10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60651-5
Pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (PALETTE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial
W. Graaf (2012)
10.1007/s11912-011-0182-z
Systematic Therapy for Unresectable or Metastatic Soft-Tissue Sarcomas: Past, Present, and Future
S. Morgan (2011)
10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.008
Combining activatable nanodelivery with immunotherapy in a murine breast cancer model.
A. Kheirolomoom (2019)
10.1053/j.jvca.2015.06.020
Chemotherapy Agents With Known Cardiovascular Side Effects and Their Anesthetic Implications.
A. D. Oprea (2017)
ANTICANCER DRUG UTILIZATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER AT REGIONAL CANCER CENTERS IN THAILAND
C. Ketkaew (2013)
10.1002/pbc.25317
Cyclophosphamide Equivalent Dose
Christopher Fryer (2015)
Cardiotoxicity in Cancer Therapy – the Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Christian P. Houbois (2019)
10.1371/journal.pone.0118048
Correction: Aneugenic Effects of Epirubicin in Somatic and Germinal Cells of Male Mice
S. Attia (2015)
10.17554/J.ISSN.1819-6187.2019.07.115
Prophylactic Autologous Cancer Cells Immunization Inhibits Triple Negative Breast Tumors’ Growth and Metastasis in 4T1 Tumor-Bearing BALB/c Mice
Amirhosein Kefayat (2019)
10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104964
Toxic effects of the anticancer drug epirubicin in vitro assayed in human erythrocytes.
Karla Petit (2020)
10.1186/s13045-017-0550-8
A phase I study of selinexor in combination with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone for remission induction in patients with acute myeloid leukemia
A. Wang (2018)
10.1371/journal.pone.0048398
Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood Cells Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity in a Rat Model
V. Todorova (2012)
10.1139/y2012-140
Paeoniflorin protects myocardial cell from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NADPH oxidase.
Jianzhe Li (2012)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar