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Evaluation Of The Effect Of Stent Strut Profile On Shear Stress Distribution Using Statistical Moments

Juan David Mejìa, Bilal Ruzzeh, Rosaire Mongrain, Richard L. Leask, Olivier F. Bertrand
Published 2009 · Computer Science, Medicine
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BackgroundIn-stent restenosis rates have been closely linked to the wall shear stress distribution within a stented arterial segment, which in turn is a function of stent design. Unfortunately, evaluation of hemodynamic performance can only be evaluated with long term clinical trials. In this work we introduce a set of metrics, based on statistical moments, that can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of a stent in a standardized way. They are presented in the context of a 2D flow study, which analyzes the impact of different strut profiles on the wall shear stress distribution for stented coronary arteries.ResultsIt was shown that the proposed metrics have the ability to evaluate hemodynamic performance quantitatively and compare it to a common standard. In the context of the simulations presented here, they show that stent's strut profile significantly affect the shear stress distribution along the arterial wall. They also demonstrates that more streamlined profiles exhibit better hemodynamic performance than the standard square and circular profiles. The proposed metrics can be used to compare results from different research groups, and provide an improved method of quantifying hemodynamic performance in comparison to traditional techniques.ConclusionThe strut shape found in the latest generations of stents are commonly dictated by manufacturing limitations. This research shows, however, that strut design can play a fundamental role in the improvement of the hemodynamic performance of stents. Present results show that up to 96% of the area between struts is exposed to wall shear stress levels above the critical value for the onset of restenosis when a tear-drop strut profile is used, while the analogous value for a square profile is 19.4%. The conclusions drawn from the non-dimensional metrics introduced in this work show good agreement with an ordinary analysis of the wall shear stress distribution based on the overall area exposed to critically low wall shear stress levels. The proposed metrics are able to predict, as expected, that more streamlined profiles perform better hemodynamically. These metrics integrate the entire morphology of the shear stress distribution and as a result are more robust than the traditional approach, which only compares the relative value of the local wall shear stress with a critical value of 0.5 Pa. In the future, these metrics could be employed to compare, in a standardized way, the hemodynamic performance of different stent designs.
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