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Comparative Analysis Of The Oral Microbiota Between Iron-deficiency Anaemia (IDA) Patients And Healthy Individuals By High-throughput Sequencing

Ranhui Xi, Renke Wang, Yuan Wang, Zhenting Xiang, Zhifei Su, Zaiqiang Cao, Xin Xu, Xin Zheng, Jiyao Li

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Abstract Background The relationship between oral microbiota and IE (infective endocarditis) is well established. Opportunistic pathogens in normal oral flora enter the bloodstream through daily oral cleaning or invasive dental procedures, leading to the occurrence of infective endocarditis. An in vitro iron-deficient condition leads to a drastic community shift in oral microbiota with increasing proportions of taxa related to infective endocarditis. To investigate the relationship among insufficient iron supply, oral microbiota and the risk of IE and to conduct a population amplification study, iron-deficiency anaemia is used as an in vivo model. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 24 primary iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) patients from 2015.6 to 2016.6 from the hematology department of West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and 24 healthy controls. High-throughput sequencing compared the dental plaque microbiota of 24 IDA (iron-deficiency anaemia) patients and 24 healthy controls. Results Sequences were classified into 12 phyla, 28 classes, 50 orders, 161 genera and 497 OTUs (the IDA and control groups shared the same 384 OTUs). Iron deficiency leads to lower internal diversity in the oral flora. The abundances of genera Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Cardiobacterium, Capnocytophaga, and Aggregatibacter were significantly higher in healthy controls, while genera Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas and Moraxella showed higher proportions in the IDA group (P < 0.05). The relative abundances of genera Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and Moraxella were significantly negatively correlated with the concentration of serum ferritin (P < 0.05). Conclusions Without an increase of oral streptococci, the main pathogen of IE, it is difficult to determine whether IDA can increase the risk of IE. However, the iron-deficient condition did lead to changes in the oral microbiota community structure. The genera that showed higher proportions in the IDA group were frequently reported as antibiotic-resistant. As antibiotics are commonly recommended to prevent IE before dental procedures, this study offers new ideas of personalized prevention of IE.