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Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Activity And Related Mechanism Of Valonia And Shell From Quercus Variabilis Blume (Fagaceae) Against Salmonella Paratyphi A And Staphylococcus Aureus

Dan Zhou, Ze-Hua Liu, Dong-Mei Wang, Deng-Wu Li, Li-Na Yang, Wei Wang

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Abstract Background Plant secondary metabolites and phytochemicals that exhibit strong bioactivities have potential to be developed as safe and efficient natural antimicrobials against food contamination and addressing antimicrobial resistance caused by the overuse of chemical synthetic preservative. In this study, the chemical composition, antibacterial activities and related mechanism of the extracts of the valonia and the shell of Quercus variabilis Blume were studied to determine its potential as a safe and efficient natural antimicrobial. Methods The phenolic compositions of valonia and shell extracts were determined by folin-ciocalteau colourimetric method, sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay and the aluminium chloride method and then further identified by the reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The antibacterial activities of valonia and shell extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method and agar dilution method. The related antibacterial mechanism was explored successively by the membrane of pathogens effect, phosphorous metabolism, whole-cell proteins and the microbial morphology under scanning electron microscopy. Results The n-butanol fraction and water fraction of valonia along with n-butanol fraction of the shell contains enrich phenolics including ellagic acid, theophylline, caffeic acid and tannin acid. The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia exhibited strong antibacterial activities against Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with the DIZ values ranged from 10.89 ± 0.12 to 15.92 ± 0.44, which were greater than that of the Punica granatum (DIZ: 10.22 ± 0.18 and 10.30 ± 0.21). The MIC values of the n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus were 1.25 mg/ml and 0.625 mg/ml. The related antibacterial mechanism of n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia may be attributed to their strong impact on membrane permeability and cellular metabolism. Those extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity according to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins and seriously change morphological structure of bacterial cells. Conclusions The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia had reasonably good antibacterial activities against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus. This study suggests possible application of valonia and shell as natural antimicrobials or preservatives for food and medical application.