Recent Developments And Emerging Trends Of Mass Spectrometric Methods In Plant Hormone Analysis: A Review
Plant hormones are naturally occurring small molecule compounds which are present at trace amounts in plant. They play a pivotal role in the regulation of plant growth. The biological activity of plant hormones depends on their concentrations in the plant, thus, accurate determination of plant hormone is paramount. However, the complex plant matrix, wide polarity range and low concentration of plant hormones are the main hindrances to effective analyses of plant hormone even when state-of-the-art analytical techniques are employed. These factors substantially influence the accuracy of analytical results. So far, significant progress has been realized in the analysis of plant hormones, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques and mass spectrometric methods. This review describes the classic extraction and modern microextraction techniques used to analyze plant hormone. Advancements in solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods have been driven by the ever-increasing requirement for dynamic and in vivo identification of the spatial distribution of plant hormones in real-life plant samples, which would contribute greatly to the burgeoning field of plant hormone investigation. In this review, we describe advances in various aspects of mass spectrometry methods. Many fragmentation patterns are analyzed to provide the theoretical basis for the establishment of a mass spectral database for the analysis of plant hormones. We hope to provide a technical guide for further discovery of new plant hormones. More than 140 research studies on plant hormone published in the past decade are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the recent advances in mass spectrometry and sample pretreatment techniques in the analysis of plant hormone. The potential progress for further research in plant hormones analysis is also highlighted.