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ATPIF1 Maintains Normal Mitochondrial Structure Which Is Impaired By CCM3 Deficiency In Endothelial Cells

Kang Wang, Haixuan Chen, Zhongyang Zhou, Haifeng Zhang, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Wang Min

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Abstract Background Numerous signaling pathways have been demonstrated experimentally to affect the pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), a disease that can be caused by CCM3 deficiency. However, the understanding of the CCM progression is still limited. The objective of the present work was to elucidate the role of CCM3 by RNA-seq screening of CCM3 knockout mice. Results We found that ATPIF1 was decreased in siCCM3-treated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs), and the overexpression of ATPIF1 attenuated the changes in cell proliferation, adhesion and migration caused by siCCM3. The probable mechanism involved the conserved ATP concentration in mitochondria and the elongated morphology of the organelles. By using the CRISPR-cas9 system, we generated CCM3-KO Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and found that the knockout of CCM3 destroyed the morphology of mitochondria, impaired the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitophagy. Overexpression of ATPIF1 contributed to the maintenance of normal structure of mitochondria, inhibiting activation of mitophagy and other signaling proteins (e.g., KLF4 and Tie2). The expression of KLF4 returned to normal in CCM3-KO EPCs after 2 days of re-overexpression of CCM3, but not other signaling proteins. Conclusion ATPIF1 maintains the normal structure of mitochondria, inhibiting the activation of mitophagy and other signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Loss of CCM3 leads to the destruction of mitochondria and activation of signaling pathways, which can be regulated by KLF4.