MicroRNAs As The Critical Regulators Of Cisplatin Resistance In Gastric Tumor Cells
Combined chemotherapeutic treatment is the method of choice for advanced and metastatic gastric tumors. However, resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the main challenges for the efficient gastric cancer (GC) treatment. Cisplatin (CDDP) is used as an important regimen of chemotherapy for GC which induces cytotoxicity by interfering with DNA replication in cancer cells and inducing their apoptosis. Majority of patients experience cisplatin-resistance which is correlated with tumor metastasis and relapse. Moreover, prolonged and high-dose cisplatin administrations cause serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and anemia. Since, there is a high rate of recurrence after CDDP treatment in GC patients; it is required to clarify the molecular mechanisms associated with CDDP resistance to introduce novel therapeutic methods. There are various cell and molecular processes associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) including drug efflux, detoxification, DNA repair ability, apoptosis alteration, signaling pathways, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous non-coding RNAs involved in chemo resistance of GC cells through regulation of all of the MDR mechanisms. In present review we have summarized all of the miRNAs associated with cisplatin resistance based on their target genes and molecular mechanisms in gastric tumor cells. This review paves the way of introducing a miRNA-based panel of prognostic markers to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy and clinical outcomes in GC patients. It was observed that miRNAs are mainly involved in cisplatin response of gastric tumor cells via regulation of signaling pathways, autophagy, and apoptosis.