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Idarubicin Cardiotoxicity: A Retrospective Study In Acute Myeloid Leukemia And Myelodysplasia.

P. Anderlini, R. Benjamin, F. C. Wong, H. Kantarjian, M. Andreeff, S. Kornblau, S. O'brien, B. Mackay, M. Ewer, S. Pierce
Published 1995 · Medicine

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PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of idarubicin (IDA)-related cardiomyopathy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS We analyzed a group of 127 AML/MDS patients who received IDA-based induction and postremission or salvage therapy and achieved a complete remission (CR) that lasted > or = 12 weeks for the development of IDA-related congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF was defined as definite if a resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of < or = 45% measured by radionuclide ventriculogram (RV) accompanied the clinical diagnosis of CHF, which had to be made during or within 6 months of receiving IDA and for which no other cause was apparent; without RV confirmation, the diagnosis was considered probable. Patients who had RVs performed were evaluated for decreasing LVEF. Older age (> or = 70 years), prior/sequential anthracycline/mitoxantrone (anthraquinone) therapy, and cardiac disease/hypertension were evaluated as risk factors for the development of CHF. RESULTS One hundred fifteen patients were assessable (median age, 40 years; median dose, 96 mg/m2). Sixty-five had RVs performed during therapy; 43 had risk factors. The probability of IDA-related cardiomyopathy was 5% at a cumulative IDA dose of 150 to 290 mg/m2, with 18 patients receiving doses greater than 150 mg/m2. At a cumulative IDA dose of 150 mg/m2, the probability of a mild or greater asymptomatic decrease probability of a mild or greater asymptomatic decrease in LVEF (> or = 10% to a level < or = 50%) was 18%, whereas the probability of a moderate or greater asymptomatic decrease in LVEF (> or = 15% to a level < or = 45%) was 7%. No patient with asymptomatic LVEF decreases developed CHF. CHF was more frequent in patients with prior/sequential exposure to anthracyclines/mitoxantrone (P = .01). CONCLUSION In this patient group, IDA-related cardiomyopathy was uncommon with cumulative IDA doses of up to 290 mg/m2. Asymptomatic LVEF decreases were more frequent, but their predictive value for the development of CHF is unclear.
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