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Cardioprotection With Dexrazoxane For Doxorubicin-containing Therapy In Advanced Breast Cancer.

S. Swain, F. Whaley, M. Gerber, S. Weisberg, M. York, D. Spicer, S. Jones, S. Wadler, A. Desai, C. Vogel, J. Speyer, A. Mittelman, S. Reddy, K. Pendergrass, E. Vélez-García, M. Ewer, J. Bianchine, R. Gams
Published 1997 · Medicine

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PURPOSE To determine the cardioprotective effect of dexrazoxane (DZR) used in a doxorubicin-based combination therapy in advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between November 1988 and January 1991, 534 patients with advanced breast cancer were randomized to two multicenter, double-blind studies (088001 and 088006). Patients received fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) with either DZR (DZR-to-doxorubicin ratio, 10:1) or placebo (PLA) every 3 weeks and were monitored with serial multiplegated acquisition (MUGA) scans. RESULTS The hazards ratio (HR) of PLA to DZR for a cardiac event, which was predefined ejection fraction changes or congestive heart failure (CHF), was 2.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61 to 4.27; P < .001) for 088001 and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.01 to 3.96; P = .038) for 088006. The objective response rates for 088001 were 46.8% for DZR and 60.5% for PLA, a difference of 14% (95% CI, -25% to -2%; P = .019), and for 088006 were 53.7% for DZR and 49.3% for PLA, a difference of 4% (95% CI, -13% to 22%; P = .63). Time to progression and survival were not significantly different between treatment arms in either study. Toxicities on the DZR arms included lower granulocyte and platelet counts at nadir (P = .009 and P = .004, respectively) and more pain on injection (P = .001), with no difference in the rates of fever, infection, or hemorrhage. CONCLUSION DZR had a significant cardioprotective effect as measured by noninvasive testing and clinical CHF. One of the two studies (088001) showed a lower response rate with DZR, but time to progression and survival were not significantly different. DZR is the first agent shown to reduce cardiotoxicity from doxorubicin.
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