← Back to Search
Cytotoxic And Hormonal Treatment For Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review Of Published Randomized Trials Involving 31,510 Women.
R. Fossati, C. Confalonieri, V. Torri, E. Ghislandi, A. Penna, V. Pistotti, A. Tinazzi, A. Liberati
Published 1998 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
PURPOSE A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of medical treatment for metastatic breast cancer. METHODS RCTs published between 1975 and 1997 have been classified according to 12 therapeutic comparisons: (1) polychemotherapy (PCHT) agents versus single agent; (2) PCHT regimens with anthracycline versus PCHT without anthracycline; (3) other PCHT versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF); (4) chemotherapy (CHT) with epirubicin versus CHT with doxorubicin; (5) CHT versus same CHT delivered with less intensive schedules; (6) other endocrine therapy (OET) versus tamoxifen; (7) OET plus tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone; (8) OET versus medroxyprogesterone; (9) OET versus aromatase inhibitors; (10) OET versus megestrol; (11) endocrine therapy (ET) versus same ET at lower doses; and (12) CHT plus ET versus CHT. Tumor response rates, mortality hazards ratio (HR) and frequency of severe side effects were the outcome measures. RESULTS A total of 189 eligible trials (31,510 patients) were identified. All provided response rates and 133 (70%) data or survival curves needed for calculation of the HR. In eight of 12 comparisons, statistically significant differences for response emerged (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12); all but no. 8 favored the first term of the comparison. Overall survival analysis showed better results of (a) PCHT versus single-agent CHT (HR=0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.90); (b) CHT with doxorubicin versus CHT with epirubicin (HR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.27); (c) CHT versus the same CHT delivered with less intensive schedules (HR=0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97); (d) ET versus the same ET at lower doses (HR=0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97). Quality of life was measured in only 2,995 of 31,510 patients (9.5%). CONCLUSION Despite some evidence of effectiveness of specific regimens, the relevance of these findings is limited by the modest survival benefit and the lack of evaluation of the quality-of-life impact of these treatments.
This paper references
High-dose chemotherapy of breast cancer: is the question answered?
M. Kennedy (1995)
Therapeutic effect of tamoxifen alone versus tamoxifen in combination wtih gestagen and oestrogen in advanced breast cancer.
H. Mouridsen (1980)
A comparison of continuation versus late intensification followed by discontinuation of chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer. A prospective randomized trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research (G.O.I.R.C.).
G. Cocconi (1990)
First-line fadrozole HCI (CGS 16949A) versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Prospective randomised trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research SAKK 20/88.
B. Thürlimann (1996)
Cisplatin and etoposide as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast carcinoma: a prospective randomized trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research.
G. Cocconi (1991)
Adriamycin alone or combined with vincristine in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.
R. Steiner (1983)
Ovarian ablation versus goserelin with or without tamoxifen in pre-perimenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer: results of a multicentric Italian study.
F. Boccardo (1994)
Combined chemo‐ and hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer
K. Brunner (1977)
Chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer: a controlled randomized trial of cyclophosphamide versus a four-drug combination.
R. Rubens (1975)
Chemotherapy with or without estrogenic recruitment in metastatic breast cancer. A randomized trial of the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest (GONO).
P. Conte (1996)
Therapeutic effect of tamoxifen versus tamoxifen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate in advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
H. Mouridsen (1979)
High Dose Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) Treatment in Metastatic Carcinoma of the Breast: A Dose-Response Evaluation
G. R. della Cuna (1978)
Phase II study of doxorubicin versus epirubicin in advanced breast cancer.
C. Brambilla (1986)
Chemotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy (CAF v CAFVP v CMF each +/- MER) for metastatic carcinoma of the breast: a CALGB study. Cancer and Leukemia Group B.
J. Aisner (1987)
Alternating sequential endocrine therapy: tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal advanced breast cancer patients.
M. Beltrán (1991)
Multicenter, randomized comparative study of two doses of paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
J. Nabholtz (1996)
Weekly Adriamycin vs. 4-epidoxorubicin every second week in advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Group.
S. Gundersen (1990)
Randomized comparison of tamoxifen versus diethylstilbestrol in estrogen receptor-positive or -unknown metastatic breast cancer: a Southeastern Cancer Study Group trial.
J. Gockerman (1986)
Comparison of antiestrogen and progestogen therapy for initial treatment and consequences of their combination for second-line treatment of recurrent breast cancer.
A. Paterson (1990)
A comparison of two doses of adriamycin in the primary chemotherapy of disseminated breast carcinoma.
J. Carmo-Pereira (1987)
Prednimustine (Sterecyt) versus cyclophosphamide both in combination with methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.
H. Yosef (1993)
A randomized comparison of megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in patients with advanced breast cancer.
P. Willemse (1990)
A randomized comparison of single-agent doxorubicin and epirubicin as first-line cytotoxic therapy in advanced breast cancer.
D. Perez (1991)
Chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer: A randomized trial of vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5‐fluorouracil, and prednisone (CMFP)
J. Carmo-Pereira (1981)
Decreased efficacy of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil in metastatic breast cancer when reducing treatment duration from 18 to 6 months.
B. Ejlertsen (1993)
A phase III trial of oral high‐dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) versus mepitiostane in advanced postmenopausal breast cancer
M. Izuo (1985)
Do oncologists have an increasing interest in the quality of life of their patients? A literature review of the last 15 years.
L. Batel-Copel (1997)
Randomized clinical trial of megestrol acetate versus tamoxifen in paramenopausal or castrated women with advanced breast cancer.
J. Ingle (1982)
Tamoxifen versus ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
L. Beex (1981)
A randomized Phase II trial of two dosage levels of letrozole as third‐line hormonal therapy for women with metastatic breast carcinoma
J. Ingle (1997)
Trial of aminoglutethimide vs hydrocortisone as second-line hormone treatment of advanced breast cancer.
P. Mercer (1993)
Combined cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. A randomized study of CMF vs CMF plus tamoxifen.
H. Mouridsen (1985)
Long-term survival of patients treated with combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
G. Falkson (1991)
A randomized multicenter trial comparing mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil in the therapy of metastatic breast carcinoma.
J. Bennett (1988)
Mitoxantrone, 5‐fluorouracil, and high dose leucovorin (NFL) versus intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5‐fluorouracil (CMF) in first‐line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast carcinoma
J. D. Hainsworth (1997)
Mitomycin C, methotrexate, and vincristine with medroxyprogesterone acetate or prednisolone for doxorubicin resistant advanced breast cancer--a randomized control study.
H. Tashiro (1995)
New treatments for breast cancer.
G. Smith (1996)
Combination or mild single agent chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer? CMF vs epirubicin measuring quality of life.
S. C. Fraser (1993)
Weekly doxorubicin with or without high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in hormone-resistant advanced breast cancer. A randomised study. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Group.
S. Gundersen (1994)
Fate of cardiology research originally published in abstract form.
L. Goldman (1980)
Dose-response relationship of epirubicin-based first-line chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer: a prospective randomized trial.
C. Focan (1993)
STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING AGREEMENT BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENT
J. Bland (1986)
Clinical trial of multiple endocrine therapy for metastatic and locally advanced breast cancer with tamoxifen-aminoglutethimide-danazol compared to tamoxifen used alone.
T. Powles (1982)
Sequential Alternate Administration of Tamoxifen and Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Advanced Breast Cancer: Clinical-Biological Randomized Study
M. De Lena (1990)
Dose-response relationship of epirubicin in the treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer: a randomized study of epirubicin at four different dose levels performed by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group.
L. Bastholt (1996)
Megestrol acetate versus tamoxifen in advanced breast cancer: 5-year analysis--a phase III trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association.
H. Muss (1988)
A Randomized Trial on Tamoxifen Continuation during Second‐Line Hormone Therapy in Breast Cancer
P. Pronzato (1993)
Randomized Trial of Doxorubicin Alone or Combined with Vincristine and Mitomycin C in Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer
J. Ingle (1989)
Weekly low-dose doxorubicin with or without high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate as secondary treatment in metastatic breast cancer--a randomized trial.
I. Elomaa (1988)
Comparison of short-term and continuous chemotherapy (mitozantrone) for advanced breast cancer
A. Harris (1990)
Combination chemotherapy and adriamycin in patients with advanced breast cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group study
B. Hoogstraten (1976)
Fadrozole hydrochloride in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast carcinoma
A. Miller (1996)
Combination hormonal therapy with tamoxifen plus fluoxymesterone versus tamoxifen alone in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. An updated analysis
J. Ingle (1991)
A double‐blind trial of tamoxifen plus prednisolone versus tamoxifen plus placebo in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. A collaborative trial of the north central cancer treatment group and mayo clinic
J. Ingle (1991)
A randomised trial comparing combination chemotherapy using mitomycin C, mitozantrone and methotrexate (3M) with vincristine, anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (VAC) in advanced breast cancer.
T. Powles (1991)
Aminoglutethimide in advanced breast cancer: clinical results of a French multicenter randomized trial comparing 500 mg and 1 g/day.
J. Bonneterre (1985)
Chemotherapy versus chemotherapy plus hormonotherapy in postmenopausal advanced breast cancer patients a randomized trial
P. Viladiu (1985)
High-intensity therapy versus low-intensity therapy in advanced breast cancer patients.
F. Porzsolt (1990)
A randomized attempt to increase the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer by hormonal synchronization.
M. Lippman (1984)
Advanced breast cancer. A randomised trial of epidoxorubicin at two different dosages and two administration systems.
S. Ebbs (1989)
Different doses of epirubicin associated with fixed doses of cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil: a randomised study in advanced breast cancer.
A. Riccardi (1995)
High dose versus low dose medroxyprogesterone acetate: a randomized trial in advanced breast cancer.
C. Gallagher (1987)
Comparison of chemotherapy with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate for advanced or recurrent breast cancer.
T. Tominaga (1994)
Randomized trial of bilateral oophorectomy versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer.
J. Ingle (1986)
MMM (mitomycin/mitoxantrone/methotrexate): an effective new regimen in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
I. Smith (1993)
Mitoxantrone versus doxorubicin in combination chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the breast.
R. Leonard (1987)
Randomised phase II study of epirubicin-vindesine versus mitoxantrone-vindesine in metastatic breast cancer.
H. Hausmaninger (1995)
VP-16 + adriamycin vs. adriamycin alone in advanced adenocarcinoma of the breast, phase II, a randomized trial: a Southwest Oncology Group Study.
C. Vaughn (1988)
Oral high‐dose medroxyprogesterone acetate versus tamoxifen: A randomized crossover trial in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer
H. van Veelen (1986)
Randomized trial of estrogen vs. tamoxifen therapy for advanced breast cancer
H. Matelski (1985)
A randomized trial of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer.
D. T. Kiang (1985)
Medroxyprogesterone acetate and prednisone in advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial.
A. Jakobsen (1986)
Cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic breast carcinoma A prospective randomized trial of two dosage schedules
A. Forastiere (1982)
Weekly Epirubicin Versus Doxorubicin as Second Line Therapy in Advanced Breast Cancer A Randomized Clinical Trial
G. Gasparini (1991)
Fadrozole HCL (CGS‐16949A) versus megestrol acetate treatment of postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast carcinoma: Results of two randomized double blind controlled multiinstitutional trials
A. Buzdar (1996)
Epirubicin or epirubicin and vindesine in advanced breast cancer. A phase III study.
D. Nielsen (1990)
Phase III randomized study of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide v fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in advanced breast cancer: an Italian multicentre trial.
G. Ambrosini (1988)
Chemotherapy with or without tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with late breast cancer. A randomized study.
F. Boccardo (1985)
Randomized clinical trial comparing mitoxantrone with epirubicin and with doxorubicin, each combined with cyclophosphamide in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.
E. Heidemann (1990)
Prognostic value of quality-of-life scores during chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Australian New Zealand Breast Cancer Trials Group.
A. Coates (1992)
A randomized trial of aminoglutethimide versus tamoxifen in metastatic breast cancer.
Anne Lipton (1982)
Cross-over comparison of tamoxifen and aminoglutethimide in advanced breast cancer.
H. Harvey (1982)
5-Fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (FAC) vs. 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC) in metastatic breast cancer.
M. Lopez (1989)
Randomized clinical trial of cyclophosphamide, 5-FU, and prednisone with or without tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
J. Krook (1985)
Chemotherapy versus combination of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer: A prospective randomized study
G. Cocconi (1983)
Interrupted versus continuous chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The Piedmont Oncology Association.
H. Muss (1991)
Current management of advanced breast cancer.
G. Hortobagyi (1996)
Anastrozole, a potent and selective aromatase inhibitor, versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of overview analysis of two phase III trials. Arimidex Study Group.
A. Buzdar (1996)
Conventional versus cytokinetic polychemotherapy with estrogenic recruitment in metastatic breast cancer: results of a randomized cooperative trial.
P. Conte (1987)
Aminoglutethimide in Advanced Breast Cancer
G. Ceci (1985)
Comparison of the selective aromatase inhibitor formestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
R. Pérez Carrión (1994)
Formestane versus megestrol acetate in postmenopausal breast cancer patients after failure of tamoxifen: a phase III prospective randomised cross over trial of second-line hormonal treatment (SAKK 20/90). Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK)
B. Thuerlimann (1997)
Hormonal treatment of advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial of tamoxifen Versus nandrolone decanoate
P. Kellokumpu-Lehtinen (1987)
A decade of breast cancer clinical investigation: results as reported in the Program/Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
R. Chlebowski (1994)
Vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide versus low‐dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5‐fluorouracil in advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial of the piedmont oncology association
H. Muss (1982)
A randomized comparison of tamoxifen with surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer.
R. Buchanan (1986)
Randomized comparison of tamoxifen and two separate doses of toremifene in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer.
D. Hayes (1995)
A comparison of intermittent vs. continuous and of adriamycin vs. methotrexate 5‐drug chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer A Cancer and Leukemia Group B study
D. Tormey (1984)
Comparison of CAF versus CMFP in metastatic breast cancer: analysis of prognostic factors.
F. Cummings (1985)
Evaluation of high-dose versus standard FAC chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer in protected environment units: a prospective randomized study.
G. Hortobagyi (1987)
Treatment of metastatic breast cancer: present and future prospects.
D. Hayes (1995)
Dibromodulcitol and adriamycin +/- tamoxifen in advanced breast cancer.
D. Tormey (1982)
Tamoxifen and fluoxymesterone in advanced breast cancer: a controlled clinical trial.
H. Westerberg (1980)
Combination chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer. A randomized trial comparing the use of adriamycin to that of vinblastine
W. Bezwoda (1979)
Prospective randomized study of aminoglutethimide (AG) versus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) versus AG+MPA in generalized breast cancer.
G. Samonis (1994)
Therapeutic effects of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole hydrochloride in advanced breast cancer.
H. Bonnefoi (1996)
A randomised comparative trial of mitozantrone/methotrexate/mitomycin C (MMM) and cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5 FU (CMF) in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.
D. Jodrell (1991)
Randomized comparison of the effects of tamoxifen, megestrol acetate, or tamoxifen plus megestrol acetate on treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer
P. Gill (1993)
A randomized comparative trial of adriamycin versus methotrexate in combination drug therapy
J. M. Bull (1978)
Chemotherapy in advanced breast carcinoma. Comparison between doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide and cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil-vincristine-prednisone.
L. Parvinen (1985)
Doxorubicin versus mitomycin versus doxorubicin plus mitomycin in advanced breast cancer: a randomized study.
M. Andersson (1986)
Randomized clinical trial of CFP versus CMFP in women with metastatic breast cancer
R. Marschke (1989)
Primary endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer: to start with tamoxifen or with medroxyprogesterone acetate?
M. Castiglione-Gertsch (1993)
Endocrinological and clinical evaluation of two doses of formestane in advanced breast cancer.
E. Bajetta (1994)
A randomised study of CGS 16949A (fadrozole) versus tamoxifen in previously untreated postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer.
C. Falkson (1996)
Tamoxifen plus bromocriptine versus tamoxifen plus placebo in advanced breast cancer: results of a double blind multicentre clinical trial.
J. Bonneterre (1988)
Megestrol acetate v tamoxifen in advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
Morgan Lr (1985)
Selecting the language of the publications included in a meta-analysis: is there a Tower of Babel bias?
G. Grégoire (1995)
Single-drug vs combination cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer: a randomized study.
J. Carmo-Pereira (1980)
Randomized clinical trial of diethylstilbestrol versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.
J. Ingle (1981)
A Randomized Trial of Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, and Prednisone Versus Cyclophosphamide, 5‐Fluorouracil, and Prednisone in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer
D. Ahmann (1991)
A prospective randomized comparison of epirubicin and doxorubicin in patients with advanced breast cancer.
K. K. Jain (1985)
A Randomized Trial of Mitomycin‐C (M) Versus Mitomycin‐C Plus High‐Dose Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MMPA) in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer
C. Falkson (1993)
Adriamycin plus vincristine compared to and combined with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5‐fluorouracil for advanced breast cancer
M. De Lena (1975)
Prospective, randomized clinical trial of two different high dosages of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
F. Pannuti (1979)
Recent advances in endocrine therapy of breast cancer
A. Howell (1997)
Economic Evaluation of Cancer Treatment Strategies
K. Torfs (1997)
Differential response to chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer in relation to estrogen receptor level. Results of a prospective randomized study
D. Rosner (1989)
Tamoxifen versus aminoglutethimide versus combined tamoxifen and aminoglutethimide in the treatment of advanced breast carcinoma.
I. Smith (1982)
Cisplatin and VP16 in Metastatic Breast Carcinoma as a Third-Line Chemotherapy: A Randomized Study Comparing Low versus High Doses of Cisplatin
G. Ceci (1995)
Low dose aminoglutethimide without hydrocortisone for the treatment of advanced postmenopausal breast cancer.
P. Bruning (1989)
A multicentre, randomized, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and clinical study to evaluate formestane in breast cancer patients at first relapse: endocrine and clinical results. The Italian Trials in Medical Oncology (I.T.M.O.) group.
E. Bajetta (1997)
Systemic treatment of early breast cancer by hormonal, cytotoxic, or immune therapy. 133 randomised trials involving 31,000 recurrences and 24,000 deaths among 75,000 women. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group.
A. Howell (1992)
A prospective randomized trial to evaluate different oral dose regimens of medroxyprogesterone acetate in women with advanced breast cancer.
O. Clinton (1995)
A randomized trial of two dose levels of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer.
I. Tannock (1988)
Cyclic sequential endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer using a combination of tamoxifen and megestrol acetate.
D. Crawford (1994)
Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5‐fluorouracil with or without estrogenic recruitment in women with metastatic breast cancer
J. Ingle (1994)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) allows acceleration and dose intensity increase of CEF chemotherapy: a randomised study in patients with advanced breast cancer.
A. Ardizzoni (1994)
Ten-year follow-up study of premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.
G. Falkson (1995)
Randomized clinical trial of doxorubicin alone or combined with mitolactol in women with advanced breast cancer and prior chemotherapy exposure
J. Ingle (1985)
Effect of megestrol acetate on quality of life in a dose-response trial in women with advanced breast cancer. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B.
A. Kornblith (1993)
Low dose chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate, 5‐fluorouracil (CAMF) versus sequential cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5‐fluorouracil (CMF) and adriamycin
R. Creech (1979)
Randomized Trial Comparing Aminoglutethimide With High-Dose Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Therapy for Advanced Breast Carcinomau
P. Canney (1988)
Combined endocrine treatment of postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial of tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen plus aminoglutethimide and hydrocortisone.
C. Rose (1986)
High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic rescue as primary treatment for metastatic breast cancer: a randomized trial.
W. Bezwoda (1995)
Evaluation of tamoxifen doses with and without fluoxymesterone in advanced breast cancer.
D. Tormey (1983)
The effect of danazol on tumour control and weight loss in patients on tamoxifen therapy for advanced breast cancer: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial.
J. Bishop (1993)
Comparative trial of low‐dose adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide with or without additive hormonal therapy in advanced breast cancer
R. Lloyd (1979)
Metastatic breast cancer: preliminary results with oral hormonal therapy.
J. Allegra (1985)
Aminoglutethimide in advanced breast cancer: prospective, randomized comparison of two dose levels. Italian Cooperative Group.
G. Robustelli della Cuna (1993)
A multicentre trial to compare a loading dose regimen of tamoxifen ('Nolvadex') with conventional dosing in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. The British Tamoxifen Study Group.
D. Spooner (1991)
Randomized trial of tamoxifen versus aminoglutethimide and versus combined tamoxifen and aminoglutethimide in advanced postmenopausal breast cancer.
M. C. Alonso-Muñoz (1988)
Diethylstilbestrol: recommended dosages for different categories of breast cancer patients. Report of the Cooperative Breast Cancer Group.
A. Carter (1977)
Estimates of the worldwide mortality from eighteen major cancers in 1985. Implications for prevention and projections of future burden
P. Pisani (1993)
TAMOXIFEN AND AMINOGLUTETHIMIDE IN ADVANCED BREAST CANCER
Joseph L Corkery (1982)
High-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate versus oophorectomy as first-line therapy of advanced breast cancer in premenopausal patients.
A. Martoni (1991)
Epirubicin versus mitoxantrone in combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer.
L Pavesi (1995)
Adriamycin versus methotrexate in five‐drug combination chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial
H. Muss (1978)
A randomised study to compare the effect of the luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue goserelin with or without tamoxifen in pre- and perimenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer.
W. Jonat (1995)
Doxorubicin in advanced breast cancer: influence of schedule on response, survival and quality of life.
M. Richards (1992)
Combined cytotoxic and progestogen therapy for advanced breast cancer
R. Rubens (1978)
A study of fadrozole, a new aromatase inhibitor, in postmenopausal women with advanced metastatic breast cancer.
J. I. Raats (1992)
Chemotherapy with or without high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in oestrogen-receptor-negative advanced breast cancer. Norwegian Breast Cancer Group.
S. Gundersen (1992)
Tamoxifen versus high-dose oral medroxyprogesterone acetate as initial endocrine therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer: a Piedmont Oncology Association study.
H. Muss (1994)
Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil, and either epirubicin or mitoxantrone: a comparative randomized multicenter study in metastatic breast carcinoma.
P. Periti (1991)
A Comparative Study of Doxorubicin and Epirubicin in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer
G. Hortobagyi (1989)
Randomized trial of tamoxifen alone or combined with aminoglutethimide and hydrocortisone in women with metastatic breast cancer.
J. Ingle (1986)
Evaluation of single-drug versus multiple-drug chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.
H. Mouridsen (1977)
"Classical" CMF versus a 3-weekly intravenous CMF schedule in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer. An EORTC Breast Cancer Co-operative Group Phase III Trial (10808).
E. Engelsman (1991)
A comparison of two doses of tamoxifen (Nolvadex) in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: 10 mg bd versus 20 mg bd.
D. Bratherton (1984)
Meta-analysis of the literature or of individual patient data: is there a difference?
L. Stewart (1993)
A phase III clinical trial comparing the combination cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone in patients with advanced breast cancer.
E. Creagan (1984)
Weekly adriamycin versus VAC in advanced breast cancer. A randomized trial.
S. Gundersen (1986)
Megestrol acetate v tamoxifen in advanced breast cancer: correlation of hormone receptors and response.
D. Ettinger (1986)
A randomised phase III cross-over study of tamoxifen versus megestrol acetate in advanced and recurrent breast cancer.
N. Stuart (1996)
High- versus standard-dose megestrol acetate in women with advanced breast cancer: a phase III trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association.
H. Muss (1990)
Response and survival in advanced breast cancer after two non-cross-resistant combinations.
C. Brambilla (1976)
Extracting summary statistics to perform meta-analyses of the published literature for survival endpoints.
M. K. Parmar (1998)
Hormonal treatment for metastatic breast cancer. An eastern cooperative oncology group phase III trial comparing aminoglutethimide to tamoxifen
K. E. Gale (1994)
The effect on survival of initial chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer: polychemotherapy versus single drug.
D. Ahmann (1987)
Comparison of induction chemotherapies for metastatic breast cancer. An eastern cooperative oncology group trial
D. Tormey (1982)
TREATMENT OF DISSEMINATED BREAST CANCER WITH TAMOXIFEN, AMINOGLUTETHIMIDE, HYDROCORTISONE, AND DANAZOL, USED IN COMBINATION OR SEQUENTIALLY
T. Powles (1984)
Prednisolone improves the response to primary endocrine treatment for advanced breast cancer.
R. Rubens (1988)
Epirubicin at two dose levels with prednisolone as treatment for advanced breast cancer: the results of a randomized trial.
T. Habeshaw (1991)
Chemohormonal therapy in advanced carcinoma of the breast: Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 8081.
M. C. Perry (1987)
This paper is referenced by
A multicenter phase II study of XRP 6258 administered as a 1h i . v . infusion every 3 weeks in taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients
X. Pivot (2008)
Biologic Impact and Clinical Implication of mTOR Inhibition in Metastatic Breast Cancer
G. Westin (2013)
Progress in systemic therapy for breast cancer: an overview and perspectives
M. Piccart (2002)
Current status of hormone therapy in patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer.
E. Dalmau (2014)
First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer
F. Puglisi (2006)
The risk of bias from omitted research
S. Garattini (2000)
HER-2/neu oncogene in uterine carcinosarcoma on tamoxifen therapy.
M. Raspollini (2005)
Letrozole in advanced breast cancer: the PO25 trial
H. Mouridsen (2007)
Ten years of experience with weekly chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer patients: multivariate analysis of prognostic factors
C. Nisticò (2006)
Expression and amplification of HER‐2/neu oncogene in uterine carcinosarcomas: a marker for potential molecularly targeted treatment?
M. Raspollini (2006)
New treatment modalities and pharmacologic refinements for metatstatic breast cancer
C. Smorenburg (2002)
Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Breast Cancer
Y. Nieto (2004)
HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG WOMEN WITH ADVANCED BREAST CANCER
M. Luoma (2004)
Second and subsequent lines of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: what did we learn in the last two decades?
F. Cardoso (2002)
Predicting Cancer Therapy-Induced Cardiotoxicity
J. Sparano (2002)
Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial. Arimidex Study Group.
J. Nabholtz (2000)
Status of high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer: a review.
Y. Nieto (2000)
Nonhormonal systemic therapy for advanced breast cancer: do the math!
P. Bedard (2008)
Hyperbranched copolymer micelles as delivery vehicles of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells
Xianghui Zeng (2012)
The sequential use of endocrine treatment for advanced breast cancer: where are we?
C. Barrios (2012)
Role of chemotherapy in breast cancer
S. Hussain (2005)
TEXAS (Taxotere® EXperience with Anthracyclines Study) trial: mature results of activity/toxicity of docetaxel given with anthracyclines in a community setting, as first line therapy for MBC
K. Malinovszky (2006)
The role of the taxanes in the management of metastatic breast cancer
S. Verma (2003)
Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient Receiving Intensive Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer
K. Ito (2005)
Feasibility and pharmacokinetics of combined therapy with S-1 and trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic or recurrent breast cancer
Y. Suzuki (2013)
Chemotherapy for breast cancer (Review).
M. S. U. Hassan (2010)
Combination versus sequential single-agent therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer
S. Modi (2005)
Primary chemotherapy for operable breast cancer: the NSABP experience
Hd Bear (2005)
Cancer du sein métastatique HER2 négatif nécessitant un traitement par chimiothérapie
I. Ray-coquard (2007)
Stand und Perspektiven der Chemotherapie beim anthrazyklinvorbehandelten Mammakarzinom – Ergebnisse randomisierter Studien
V. Heinemann (2003)
Combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer
Jean-Marc A. Nabholtz (2002)
Concomitant versus sequential chemotherapy in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer.
A. Ocaña (2006)See more